2012年8月30日 星期四

藝術家為何創作?

昨天中午和雅萍老師、嵐蘭以及三位可愛的小朋友在女巫店共進午餐,一起度過一個愉快的下午,女巫店的簡餐與點心都很美味。散場後,我到唐山買了木心的《西班牙三棵樹》、《素履之往》、《溫莎墓園日記》,以及《公共知識分子》第三期,又到誠品台大店買了七等生的《為何堅持:七等生精選集》和夏目漱石的《虞美人草》。晚上和依明在捷運忠孝復興站附近一家位於二樓的可愛咖啡館吃飯,好開心的一天。

今天津津有味地讀著昨天買的書,有感而發:這世上最有藝術深度的創作者,都不是為得獎,不是為名為利創作的,諸如:作家郭松棻、木心、舞鶴、七等生,畫家梵谷,日本舞踏家大野一雄、土方巽、秦Kanoko,日本帳篷劇導演櫻井大造,這些精彩的藝術家,都是為了內在需求,為了讓自我與世界對話而創作的。

2012年8月19日 星期日

女朋友。男朋友

今天去看了楊雅喆導演,張孝全、桂綸鎂、鳳小岳主演的電影《女朋友。男朋友》,電影的劇情和風格和我想像的很不一樣,三位主角的外型和演技都很出色。沒想到他們三位的台語都這麼溜,講得挺道地的,可能有特別請語言指導吧。電影接近尾聲時,陳忠良(張孝全 飾)、林美寶(桂綸鎂 飾)、王心仁(鳳小岳 飾)三人的處境都讓我感到辛酸,但與開頭呼應的結局,算是happy ending吧!

我喜歡片中襯托出故事發生年代的配樂,丘丘合唱團娃娃金智娟主唱的「河堤上的傻瓜」,以及片尾羅大佑演唱的「家」,很溫情的一首歌。王心仁向林美寶告白時說了一句很動人的話:「雖然我不是主打歌(指的是『就在今夜』),但我至少是(錄音帶的)B面第一首(指的是『河堤上的傻瓜』)啊!」丘丘合唱團是我們五、六年級生的集體記憶,也是繼校園民歌風潮之後,第一支以熱門音樂打入市場走上舞台的本土搖滾樂團,小學的時候,「就在今夜」是我們在畢業旅行時,全班同學一起在遊覽車上高聲合唱的歌!那張專輯還有一首很吸引我的歌,就是「為何夢見他」。

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W7SpyTNvYAI&feature=related

2012年8月13日 星期一

2012年倫敦奧運

2012年倫敦奧運男籃金牌賽真是精彩!西班牙隊對抗美國夢幻男籃隊,雙方勢均力敵,西班牙隊的強勁不容小覷,表現十分出色,美國隊僅是險勝。比賽結束分出勝負之後,美國隊的職籃巨星Kobe Bryant上前緊緊擁抱西班牙隊的主將Pau Gasol(同時也是Kobe在Lakers的戰友),兩人講了一些話,棋逢敵手,惺惺相惜。


倫敦奧運開幕典禮由Paul McCartney壓軸獻唱“Hey, Jude!”閉幕典禮則由一群表演者用白色布幔拼出John Lennon的臉孔,並演唱“Imagine”,英國人果然視The Beatles為神。其間還有我所喜愛的Queen演唱“We Will Rock You”,Queen已故的主唱Freddie Mercury重現大螢幕,他演唱招牌歌曲“Bohemian Rhapsody” ;David Bowie亦以影像現身;以及George Michael演唱舊曲“Freedom”和新歌“White Light”,還有其他流行樂團的演唱,儼然一場眾星雲集的演唱會。


整場倫敦奧運,開幕典禮時我看見了天才編舞家Akram率團演出、點燃聖火、Paul McCartney演唱“Hey, Jude!”,賽事中見到Kobe Bryant,閉幕典禮時看到我喜愛的幾位歌手演出,我就心滿意足了。

http://topic.udn.com/london2012/storypage.jsp?f_ART_ID=2035

2012年8月11日 星期六

真田廣之

在Hollywood電影台看了渡邊謙和阿湯哥主演的《末代武士》(The Last Samurai),真田廣之是主要配角。不管真田廣之飾演什麼角色,他是我心目中,永遠的男主角。

2012年7月29日 星期日

Farewell! Miss Siti.

Farewell! Take care! Miss Siti. Weep no more, my lady. You are the best. We were so happy with you. Move back to your motherland great Indonesia for your husband and 9-year-old daughter. They are in need of you. Hold on to the memory. We’ll miss you much.

Love & hugs,
Alice

2012年7月27日 星期五

Floating

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hdHbJErF_V8

Performed by Julee Cruise.


Written by Angelo Badalimenti and David Lynch.

From the album "Into the Night",1990.

郭松棻《驚婚》

「聽說他們為了一些地圖上找不到的小島嶼在奔走運動,怕又被日本人佔去了。那麼你呢?你的學業呢?還是哲學嗎?——郭松棻《驚婚》」這分明是郭松棻自身的寫照。郭松棻從台大哲學系轉至台大外文系,與和他一生相伴的摯友,台大哲學系的劉大任同樣因保衛釣魚台運動而放棄美國加州柏克萊大學的博士學位,爾後同赴紐約,於聯合國教科文組織工作,並持續文學創作。精彩、嚴肅、詩意、內省、陰柔、藝術成就極高的郭松棻。

2012年7月24日 星期二

2012年7月16日 星期一

田中泯《第八日的蟬》

大師總是謙卑的。


今天去看了《第八日的蟬》,不是為了看女主角永作博美和井上真央,也不是想知道為何這部電影獲得十一項日本奧斯卡大獎,而是特地去看在這部電影中演出一個很小的角色的日本舞踏大師田中泯。等了很久,在電影接近尾聲時,田中泯才現身,飾演一位在日本小豆島經營一家照相寫真館的攝影師。他從頭到尾出現不到五分鐘,但全身是戲,攝影機給了他歷盡滄桑的容顏一個堅定的凝視。在《第八日的蟬》平面文宣上,也寫了「田中泯」的名字。全片結束,放映工作人員表,演員的部分,第一個出現的是井上真央,最後出現的則是田中泯和永作博美。正如另一位日本舞踏大師,「大駱駝艦」的掌門人麿赤兒,出現在電影《人間失格》的畫面亦不到三分鐘,但演員表列出時,排名第一的就是麿赤兒。由此可見日本人對於舞踏藝術家的敬重。田中泯和麿赤兒一樣,除了舞踏創作與表演之外,還會參與電視劇及電影演出。我曾在鈴木保奈美主演的《謊言謊言來來來》、《追殺比爾》和《人間失格》中見到麿赤兒,也在NHK大河劇《龍馬傳》和同志電影《彩虹下的幸福》以及今天看的《第八日的蟬》中看見田中泯。

2008年秋天,我所敬仰的Sal老師邀請我到印尼參加他籌畫的印尼舞蹈節發表論文,有幸親炙田中泯大師本人,至今,我仍難忘他回答我的提問時,不透過印尼翻譯,自己直接以英文告訴我「土方巽是個天才」及其他相關問題時的專注神情。田中泯不苟言笑,只有在他與Sal老師交會時才會綻放出笑容。而且,田中泯非常謙卑。我們在印尼舞蹈節看了他和印尼幾個村落的人合作了一支舞踏作品的影像,也看了他在日本主持舞踏工作坊的紀錄片。他的身體非常美,我從他的身體上看見了山川地貌。田中泯除了創作、表演、開設舞踏工作坊之外,最酷的是,他還在一個名為「桃花村」的地方種植稻米、水果和茶,民眾可以透過他的網站購買他所生產的農作物。他說過一句很動人話:“I am a farmer who crawls the Earth. I am also an avant-gardist who crawls the Earth.”


田中泯的網站:
http://www.min-tanaka.com/

2012年7月9日 星期一

軟弱與剛強

「故此,我為基督的緣故,就以軟弱、凌辱、艱難、迫害、困苦為喜樂,因為我什麼時候軟弱,什麼時候就剛強了。」——《聖經》哥林多後書,第十二章第10節。

2012年7月7日 星期六

看得見的與看不見的

「我們所顧念的,不是看得見的,而是看不見的;因為看得見的是暫時的,看不見的是永遠的。」——《聖經》哥林多後書,第四章第18節。

2012年6月30日 星期六

舊金山路邊的大理石雕像


舊金山是一個色彩斑斕的美麗城市,由於16世紀中期至1821年之間曾經被西班牙殖民過,因此舊金山的建築物頗具歐風,市區附近的街景俯拾皆美,還有叮噹車穿梭其間。Union Square附近有一戶看不出做什麼生意,姑且稱之為「某戶門口偶爾有位高大英俊的黑人保鏢站崗的民居」門口,一左一右各放置了一座擺著不同姿勢的大理石男性裸體雕像。儘管在歐洲各大古都,各式各樣的雕像隨處可見;再者,雖然我不是女同志,但我向來喜愛女性裸體的柔軟線條甚於男性具有某種侵略性的裸體,但不知為什麼,這戶民居前的兩座男性裸體雕像卻異常吸引我,每次經過此處,我都會停駐在這戶民居前,仔細地欣賞這兩座雕像,良久良久。

隨便走在舊金山路邊,就可以看見宛如大英博物館典藏品的大理石雕像。

郭雪湖《南街殷賑》底稿及郭松棻遺作《驚婚》

到北美館參觀「凝望之外/典藏對話」館藏展,因為想去看看膠彩畫家郭雪湖1930年畫作《南街殷賑》的草稿。今年農曆大年初一(1月23日)郭雪湖以105歲高齡仙逝,繼與他同獲日治時期「台展三少年」美譽的陳進和林玉山之後離開人間。「凝望之外/典藏對話」標榜同時展出「台展三少年」畫作,也另闢專區展出北美館典藏的郭雪湖所有畫作(共八幅),包括知名的《圓山附近》、《圓山附近下圖(底稿, draft)》,以及我最想看的《南街殷賑》、《南街殷賑下圖》。


進入展場,首先吸引我注目的,是去年以95高齡辭世的攝影家林壽鎰先生於1955年拍攝的電影明星《張美瑤小姐》。張美瑤女士也是在不久前過世,她年輕時,非常清純,非常美。攝影將人的美好凝結在瞬間,化剎那為永恆。

也看了好友連建興2008年近作《失落的領腳》。他還是以一貫細膩的筆觸,描繪魔幻寫實夢境般的場景。現實生活裡,被朋友們暱稱為「泡泡」的連建興,性格並不像他的畫作這般陰鬱。

走入令我摒息的郭雪湖紀念展區,在裡面流連忘返。郭雪湖的繪畫技法,藝術史學家稱其為「雪湖派」,其繪製輪廓和設色的筆法,近乎中國唐代的繪畫。易言之,郭雪湖以「勾勒填彩」描繪畫作,先以黑墨細筆勾勒出景物的輪廓,再填入顏彩。他於1928年繪製《圓山附近》之前,每天到圓山附近觀賞當地的風景,整整看了六個月的時間,才畫出底稿,又花了六個月的時間再去觀賞圓山的風景之後才完成彩繪,以深淺濃淡不一的綠色,極為細緻的筆法描繪出樹林、稻田、農人、花卉、橋、雲朵與飛鳥,其細密畫風使遠景與近景產生分明的立體層次。


《南街殷賑》則是我到北美館看了一次又一次的畫作,這幅畫是所有台灣畫家的作品中,我最喜愛的一幅畫。而我這次特地來看的是這幅畫的底稿,因為這是北美館第一次展出的底稿。泛黃的《南街殷賑下圖》和《圓山附近下圖》一樣都曾遭受水的浸蝕,留下一大片的水漬,兩幅畫的底稿與彩繪之後的作品亦是相去不遠。《南街殷賑》畫的是台北迪化街霞海城隍廟前中元節的場景。上半部依循透視法描繪出景深,下半部則以觀者平視的角度,畫出各式各樣的商家看板,以及歡欣熱鬧人聲鼎沸的市井百態。有學者認為,這幅畫描繪日本殖民統治下歡樂的常民生活,代表台灣人民樂於接受日本統治,以及日本對台殖民的成功,造成了郭雪湖的畫作受日本審核單位所喜愛的政治因素,而此畫也因而獲得第四回台展賞與無鑒查的佳績。據說,此畫中「乾元元丹本舖」中藥店,至今仍存留於迪化街,與時俱存,並未歇業。


http://www.tfam.museum/TFAM_Collection/pic_page.aspx?collid=33&PMId=33

附帶一提,郭雪湖的兒子,我最喜愛的作家郭松棻的遺作《驚婚》近日已由印刻出版社付梓,甚喜。

2012年6月27日 星期三

舞神Mikhail Baryshnikov

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Eq9m-bZ6SAQ&NR=1&feature=fvwp

這個連結是在電影《飛越蘇聯》裡,芭蕾舞超級巨星Mikhail Baryshnikov在空曠的劇院裡跳的一支獨舞,我非常喜愛。幾年前曾在台北觀賞Mikhail Baryshnikov率領「白橡樹」現代舞團來台公演,親眼目睹神乎其技,一般舞者在跳pirouettes前,會先運用頭部和身軀拋甩的力量帶動全身轉動,但Mikhail Baryshnikov卻不需頭部和身體的帶動,就可以連續做好多個pirouettes,彷彿足尖裝著自動旋轉馬達似地,穩定而優雅。Mikhail Baryshnikov是舞神。

2012年6月26日 星期二

Michael Jackson


Michael Jackson過世當天,我正好在洛杉磯。那天白天,我從舊金山飛往洛杉磯探望王丹大哥。王丹大哥好心地開車到洛杉磯的機場接我,送我到市中心的旅館之後,就先行離開了。那家旅館正好在Los Angeles Times大樓和狄士尼音樂中心旁。進了房間,我把行李箱打開,癱軟在床上,拿著電視遙控器隨意轉台。忽然轉到一台FOX TV,出現一堆人潮,字幕寫著“Michael Jackson was found breathlessly.”我嚇壞了,立刻從床上一躍而起,坐在電視機前看報導。一位記者說了一句話:「今天是Michael Jackson一生當中,最平靜的一天。」

隔天,我買了一份Los Angeles Times,頭版印了大大的“King of Pop is dead at 50”,內頁仍有大量相關報導,包括Quincy Jones, Madonna等演藝圈人士追悼MJ的話語;Quincy Jones說:「我失去了一個弟弟。」那天的華爾街日報,由於媒體屬性不同,並沒有做大篇幅的報導,但內頁有一篇報導,標題下得很漂亮, “Walking on the moon, effortlessly.” 那天晚上,王丹大哥來接我,請我去吃日本料理,之後又帶我到夜店去玩。王丹大哥在LA的朋友Robbie告訴我,他住得離UCLA很近,前一天晚上一得知MJ的死訊,立刻趕往UCLA Medical Center,廣場上擠了無數的媒體、SNG車和歌迷,還有好幾架直昇機在天上飛。

MJ過世後的第二天,我在LA市區看到一輛開往UCLA的公車,我毫無猶豫地跳上這輛公車,   特地到搶救MJ的UCLA Medical Center一探究竟。那是一家非常豪華的醫院,追悼MJ的人潮已經散去,但在醫院旁的圍牆邊,還留置著很多歌迷製作的海報、MJ的照片、蠟燭、花卉。也仍有幾位歌迷到此處表達他們的哀悼之意。我注意到一位中產階級黑人男子,身形高大,由他的家人開車送他來此處,他用手機拍了一些照片,家人接他走了,沒想到過了不久,他們又來了一趟,再度在MJ追悼區停留了一陣子,不捨離去。

MJ過世後的第三天,洛杉磯市區已經開始有攤販販售印有他的肖像的T-shirt;更有甚者,市區已經出現寫著“Good-bye, Michael Jackson. We miss you.”的霓虹招牌,剛出爐的Newsweek週刊,封面是一張MJ小時候的照片,標題是"The Meaning of Michael."返台的飛機上,每一份報紙都大幅報導MJ的死訊。

MJ離逝至今,已經三年了。

2012年6月16日 星期六

PINA

豪雨之前與豪雨之後,風和日麗晴空萬里的禮拜三,生和我一起去看德國電影導演溫德斯(Wim Wenders, 1945~ )拍攝的3D紀錄片“PINA”。2009年6月,德國編舞家碧娜‧鮑許(Pina Bausch, 27 July 1940 ~ 30 June 2009)在被醫生診斷出罹患癌症之後五天就辭世,使得碧娜所率領的烏帕塔舞蹈劇場(Tanztheater Wuppertal)舞者們,以及正在進行“PINA”拍攝的溫德斯導演措手不及。因此,原本打算以公路電影的手法拍攝本片的溫德斯導演,轉而將這部電影拍成向舞蹈家碧娜‧鮑許致敬的紀錄片。在技術上,溫德斯以3D的手法處理影像,使觀眾產生「如臨劇場及現場」的感官經驗。

影片中,沒有任何對於碧娜生平的介紹,也沒有陳述碧娜對於世界舞壇有何貢獻,而是環扣在碧娜的舞作《春之祭》(Frühlingsopfer, 1975)、《穆勒咖啡館》(Café Müller, 1978)、《交際場》(Kontakthof, 1978)、《滿月》(Vollmond, 2006),以及片頭與片尾的《康乃馨》(Nelken, 1982)裡舞者列隊行走做出春、夏、秋、冬的手勢,勾起1997年在台北國家劇院的觀眾應邀起立和台上的舞者共舞,一起做出春、夏、秋、冬手勢的回憶。溫德斯不只拍攝劇場內的舞作,也將舞者帶到馬路旁、游泳池畔、樹林裡、小河邊、車站內、車廂裡。其間穿插一部份碧娜過世前拍攝的歷史影像,以及烏帕塔舞蹈劇場的舞者們各自以其母語訴說對碧娜的緬懷和碧娜對他們造成的影響,包括與碧娜合作最久的Dominic Mercy和Malou Airaudo夫婦、他們的女兒、韓國女舞者、印尼女舞者……。一位舞者說,碧娜要我們“Dance for love.”。台灣第一位進入德國碧娜‧鮑許烏帕塔舞蹈劇場的舞者,北藝大舞蹈系畢業的余采芩,則只是在鏡頭前靜默地注視著觀眾,一句話也沒說。

溫德斯導演不愧為世界知名的電影導演,在影片的拍攝與剪輯方面,有其獨到的敏銳度。例如在呈現碧娜舞作《交際場》時,他以跳接的手法讓成人版《交際場》與老人版《交際場》交互輝映。當舞者坐在攝影機前追憶碧娜時,他能夠從舞者的敘述中擷取最精華的字句。片尾,溫德斯將《康乃馨》的戶外場景拉回劇院,觀眾席上空無一人,事實上,觀眾就是戴著3D眼鏡坐在電影院裡的我們,電影銀幕裡,劇院內的白幕上,碧娜以“Dance! Dance! Otherwise we are lost.”這句話,向所有的觀眾道別。

這部電影,向觀眾傳達了藝術家與藝術家之間的惺惺相惜,大師與大師之間的靈魂交會。

在提及《穆勒咖啡館》時,碧娜強調她跳這支自傳體舞作時,「閉上眼睛」這個動作的重要性。此外,有一位舞者則說了這句話:「即使閉上眼睛,碧娜也能夠洞悉一切。」無巧不成書,2007年5月9日我撰述了一篇評析《穆勒咖啡館》的文章,標題就是〈閉上眼睛,看。〉

散場之後,我告訴生:「我覺得所有舞者說的話裡面,最動人的就是『大野一雄也死了,我常常想像他和碧娜一起在天上跳舞,從這一片雲上跳到另一片雲上。』」生說:「對啊!大野一雄和碧娜‧鮑許,對二十世紀全球舞壇造成最大影響的兩位舞蹈家。」

2012年6月11日 星期一

有一個人

作詞:李敏勇


作曲:李泰祥

演唱:齊豫



在對星星做最後一次眺望後

我關上深夜的窗

在地球另一邊的某個地方

有人默默的把窗打開了

(有人默默的把窗打開了)

說不出是冷漠或熱情的那人的臉

全然的朝向我

我暗中給他祝福

他也許是守護我夜眠的人

也許是漫無目的在夜裡徬徨的人

我不清楚他

(我不清楚他)



似曾醒來打開窗

我又看到

地球另一邊的那一個地方

默默關窗的那人的姿勢

我暗暗的給他祝福

是否輪到我守護他夜眠了嗎

輪到我漫無目的在他夜裡徬徨的人

說不出冷漠或熱情的那個人

我和他常常這樣相遇

常常這樣別離

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1UkOvbgc5HI&feature=related

浮雲歌

作詞:王玉萍


作曲:李泰祥

編曲:李泰祥

演唱:齊豫



不要問我是誰

不要問我來自何方

我如浮雲一般

偶爾掠過你的身畔

帶給你美麗的虹彩和夢幻

不要將我留住

不要將我牽絆



也許我會飄得更遠

也許有一天我會再回來 喔

也許我將再回來



因為就在相聚的剎那間

早已譜出了永恆的戀曲 喔

永恆美麗的戀曲

 
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q-0-LKEIyaQ

2012年6月10日 星期日

勅使川原三郎

倘若問我誰是我心目中排行第一名的編舞家,毫無疑問地,我的答案是當代天才編舞家/舞者勅使川原三郎。曾經三度觀賞勅使川原三郎的作品演出,包括:《絕對零度》(“Absolute Zero”),《電光石火》(“Luminous”)和《人體書頁》(“Bones in Pages”),為其獨樹一格的肢體動作以及舞台設計深深震懾。初習視覺藝術的勅使川原三郎,不僅擔綱編舞家和舞者的角色,更常以裝置藝術的概念構成他的舞台,也會設計燈光和音樂,有時甚至連服裝設計也都由他一手包辦。更可貴的是,他的每一支舞作都蘊藏著深刻的哲學思維,以身體和空間探索人和大自然的關係,人和物體的關係,以及人和人的關係。

《絕對零度》的舞台幾乎是空的,除了穿插一些視覺影像之外,大部分的時候是勅使川原三郎自己一個人在空曠舞台上的獨舞,他的動作常常在長長的sustain之後,再突然來一個sudden,瞬間轉換能量,讓人看得目不轉睛。我想,公元十四世紀,日本足利義滿將軍初次觀賞年少的世阿彌演出能劇時,應該也是和我初次觀賞勅使川原三郎的演出時一樣地驚心動魄吧!我尤其喜愛《絕對零度》中,勅使川原三郎和他女朋友宮田佳的這段雙人舞,我看過不計其數的表演,但這是我第一次看見舞台上的舞者散發出來的「氣」,肉眼看不見,但是確實存在的「氣」。即使宮田佳只是在台上以簡單的動作畫出圓形,也看得出「氣」在她身上的流動。而台上的兩人,雖然沒有身體的接觸,但藉由「氣」的交會,隱喻著兩人若即若離的微妙關係。

曾任Martha Graham舞團首席舞者的許芳宜學姐曾經告訴我,有一次她在紐約看勅使川原三郎的演出,散場後巧遇飛越蘇聯的芭蕾舞超級巨星Mikhail Baryshnikov,Baryshnikov告訴芳宜:「勅使川原三郎好棒喔!」哇,Baryshnikov耶!

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IehdpI3wFkU&mode=related&search=

2012年5月29日 星期二

在牯嶺街賣早點的歐吉桑


初次見到這位歐吉桑,是2004年某個週末到辦公室加班的下午,在和平西路的一個十字路口,見他推著推車經過那條斑馬線。歐吉桑的身形極為瘦小,身高可能不到140公分,而且他的年齡看起來大約八十歲了。那條斑馬線很長,再加上那天颳大風,歐吉桑抵抗著強風,很吃力地推著推車,讓人為他捏了一把冷汗,彷如馬路上的一番奇景。我很擔心他在時限內還沒通過斑馬線,在震驚之餘,我目送他離去,感到無比辛酸。

後來,某個去上班的早晨,繞道而行,赫然發現這位歐吉桑在牯嶺街和汀州路交叉口附近賣早點,豆漿、油條、麵包,他的顧客也多半是上了年紀的人。爾後,我每天早上上班途中,總會繞路過去看看他今天有沒有來擺攤,想確認他是否安然健在。一次,鼓起勇氣去向他買早點,每個麵包居然只賣十塊錢,真不知道他每天如此辛苦勞動,能換取多少微薄的收入。而這位年邁的歐吉桑,又經歷過什麼樣的人生?

不禁要問,我們的政府到底在做什麼?為什麼我們的社會福利政策無法照顧到像他這樣的老人家,使老有所終呢?

2012年5月28日 星期一

山海塾 《金柑少年》

我又夢見舞踏了。今天清晨的舞踏夢,是日本舞踏天團「山海塾」派了一位老師和幾位舞者來台舉辦工作坊,我去參加這個工作坊。奇怪的是,全團都是男舞者的「山海塾」,派來的竟是一位女老師,而且我在那幾位舞者中,遍尋不著市,令我非常感傷。後來,Rika和小羽生也出現了,但Rika的舞踏明明和「山海塾」的舞踏差異很大啊!我躺在劇場的黑膠地板上,把小羽生放在我的肚皮上,夢就醒了。

晚上,無意間在YouTube發現一支「山海塾」的編舞家天兒牛大先生編排其早期經典舞作《金柑少年》的影片,可以看見他工作時的專注神情,其間穿插他談論他的創作概念、訓練舞者的方式(有幾招是2005年寅生和我到日本富山縣參加「山海塾」蟬丸老師主持的工作坊時,蟬丸老師傳授給我們的動作),以及舞作精彩片段。

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j9aioN8oNmA&feature=related

(P.S.): 託新象小老闆之福,2008年新象邀請山海塾四度來台表演之後的慶功宴,小老闆許福福在攝影家謝春德開設,並由台灣食神阿嬌姐掌廚的「食方」宴請團員(包括舞者和技術人員以及技術人員的家屬),福福邀我和寅生也一起參與,而且要我們非到不可。食物好得沒話講(阿嬌姐的廚藝創作、食材和餐具都很精緻,頗有禪意,令我想起尾瀨朗的漫畫《夏子的酒》),最開心的是可以和蟬丸老師、市和一郎敘舊,以及見到「素顏的天兒牛大」,「素顏」喔!舞台上的他簡直就是外星人啊!美到了極致!而他的身體和他透過舞作所傳達的思惟,都不是一般人類所能企及的,然而舞台下的他,給人感覺很親切,去向他敬酒致意時,他很開心。那頓晚飯從晚間8點吃到半夜12點多,離行前,天兒牛大還緊緊握著我的手,「這是夢嗎?」我問我自己。

2012年5月18日 星期五

Flashdance


今天居然無意間在HBO看到1983年紅極一時的美國通俗電影“Flashdance”(《閃舞》),這部電影描述一個白天在工廠當焊接工人,晚上為了興趣在酒吧裡跳舞的素人女舞者Alex考入劇團成為專業舞者的過程,其間穿插她的工廠老闆愛上她、追求她的愛情戲。小時候,曾租借這部片的錄影帶看了許多次,買來的電影原聲錄音帶也反覆聽到帶子快爛了,因此,至今我仍對片中的主題曲和插曲耳熟能詳。飾演女主角Alex的Jennifer Beals非常迷人,而最為人稱道的,就是片尾Alex參加劇團入團考試時,由替身舞者Marine Jahan跳的那一支壓軸的“Flashdance”,舞藝精湛,舞步新奇,將這部電影帶到最高潮。

大學時期,在東海現代舞蹈社跳舞,芭蕾舞、現代舞、中國民族舞由沈若詩老師指導;爵士舞則由廖淑芬老師(劉紹爐老師的愛徒)指導。記得大二下學期,我可以在期末舞展前,以三天的時間學會一支由廖淑芬老師編舞,難度不下於“Flashdance”的舞(只差沒有如同電影中的舞者,前空翻、up-side-down倒栽蔥以背部抵地不停地旋轉),當時用的配樂是Celine Dion演唱的歌曲“Refuse to Dance”,跳到最後,舞台上的舞者「咻——」一聲地全部倒地,儼然在舞台上舞至死亡。現在年紀大了,再加上太多年沒練舞了,舞功大不如前,根本不可能學會這樣的舞,不過耶誕夜還是可以在華山的“Legacy”連續舞動六個小時,聊表安慰。

以前只是純粹喜歡跳舞,接觸了舞蹈研究之後,才知道,舞論是哪一種舞蹈,都可以成為舞蹈研究的對象,哪怕是肚皮舞、街舞和Hip-Hop,都具有研究價值,都可以從文化研究的角度審視之。
 
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Jma4LTHhNJY&feature=fvwrel

2012年5月15日 星期二

夢、舞踏、衰弱的病體

又夢見舞踏了,已經數不清這是我第幾次夢見舞踏了。以往,總是夢見我在觀賞舞踏表演,或我在跳舞踏,這回的夢,則是有一位男性學者找我去做一項舞踏研究,薪資以歐元支付。夢中的歐元,比一般硬幣大得多,而且有極深的刻紋,簡直就像以金屬製成的圓形綠豆糕。

回想2009年初夏,赴美國史丹佛大學參加SDHS(Society of Dance History Scholars, 舞蹈史學者學會)年會發表關於秦Kanoko之舞踏作品《天然之美》的論文,年會期間也看了不少舞蹈作品,型類之多,令我大開眼界。年會結束之後,亞婷老師帶我們到舊金山郊區會晤另一位住在當地的台灣舞蹈家,當時,正在戶外喝下午茶的我們,巧遇同為SDHS成員,剛剛才和我們道別的Petra Kuppers 教授。 Kuppers 教授是坐在輪椅上的肢障人士,當時她身旁跟著一位也是坐在輪椅上,患有重度腦性麻痺的中年男子Neil, Kuppers 教授告訴我們,Neil是一位舞踏舞者(a Butoh dancer),而且,終其一生(all his life)都是舞踏舞者,我非常同意這句話。雖然Neil能夠以口語表達的字句不多,而且多半是片段的,但我還是很開心地和Neil說了很多話,應他的要求和他握手,拿飲料和水果給他吃。道別之後,當天晚上我就收到 Kuppers 教授寄來的“braun marcus butoh”,這支上傳到youtube的影像,是Neil參與的一支舞踏作品。

第二次世界大戰末期,美軍在日本的廣島、長崎投擲了兩顆原子彈,日本天皇宣告無條件投降。號稱“Little Boy”的這兩顆原子彈,不僅使廣島和長崎面目全非,也誕生許多因遭受輻射污染所造成的畸形兒;「日本舞踏」的產生,就是以身體做為文化的鑄型所展現的「衰弱的病體」,而這些異質的、受迫害的、被扭曲的、社會底層弱勢族群的身體,就是舞踏的身體。

不知道牯嶺街小劇場歷年來舉辦的「第六感官能祭」有沒有辦法申請到經費邀請Neil來台演出,姚館長,拜託你了!
 
Neil's Butoh: “braun marcus butoh”
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BkZO-ejMMCc

2012年4月25日 星期三

因為孤獨,因為愛――評析伍國柱舞作《斷章》

一、研究主題:


1970年出生於高雄,24歲才開始學舞的編舞家伍國柱(1970~2006),大學就讀國立台北藝術大學戲劇系,主修導演,卻因個人對於舞蹈的熱切渴愛,而致力於舞蹈藝術;大學畢業後赴歐,進入德國福克旺藝術學院舞蹈系,獲舞蹈家文憑,開始編舞,在德國舞壇綻放異彩。旅居德國期間,伍國柱曾應邀為福克旺藝術學校舞蹈系、烏帕塔歌劇院編舞,2004年更應聘德國卡薩爾劇院舞蹈劇場藝術總監。德國舞評家譽稱其舞作為「幾近天堂的身體語言」。期間,伍國柱也同時與台灣舞團合作,回台發表舞作。2006年1月號的《德國劇場》雜誌,盛讚伍國柱的編舞才氣,直追當代荷蘭編舞大師漢茲‧凡‧曼儂(Hans van Manen),可惜該月初,歷經16個月抗癌奮戰,於2006年1月6日凌晨,伍國柱在家人、親友的陪伴下病逝於台北,年僅36歲,在生命最燦爛時凋零,令人不勝欷噓。


本研究旨在概觀伍國柱在台發表的舞作,包括:2001年為「台北越界舞團」編作的《花月正春風――一個不能排練的即興曲》(2001);多次為雲門2團演出的作品包括Tantalus(2000)、《西風的話》(2000),ATE(又名《前進,又後退》,2001)、《斷章》(2003);並為雲門舞集編創《在高處》(2004)等舞作,而以完成於2004年的全本《斷章》作為主要研究對象。我試圖將上述舞作放在德國舞蹈劇場的脈絡之下,剖析伍國柱舞作的編舞手法、舞台特色、動作的符號語言,以及伍國柱舞作所蘊藏的獨特孤寂美學。


就研究方法而言,我除了爬梳上述舞作文本及相關報導和論述之外,更試圖比較伍國柱與Pina Bausch的舞蹈劇場作品的異同,並探討文學、哲學、戲劇、舞蹈在伍國柱的舞台上的諸多對話。


二、伍國柱在台舞作內容:


公元兩千年,伍國柱從德國帶回來的第一支舞作Tantalus,以天神宙斯(Zeus)之子Tantalus為名,由於Tantalus犯錯,宙斯遂處罰Tantalus站立在水中,卻永遠喝不到水,表面上水源涶手可及,實際上可望而不可及。空曠的舞台上一方舞台燈落下,動作齊一的八位舞者,身著上班族套裝,在後現代表演藝術家Meredith Monk清冷的歌聲中,眾人朝向一個連自己都無法確定的目標奮力奔跑,時而搔癢,時而喘息。群體一致的動作之中,偶爾有人突然靜止,呆若木雞,眼神渙散地注視前方,隔了一陣子之後又開始跟著眾人繼續奔跑。Tantalus再現高度資本主義社會中人與人之間的疏離情境,在群體之中渴望獨特,卻又害怕因為獨特而喪失群體認同。


同樣在千禧年由雲門2團演出的《西風的話》,舞作最初,一位男舞者對一位女舞者訴說聖誕老公公、嫦娥奔月和以手指月耳朵就會潰爛的傳說,全都不是真的;女舞者一臉茫然,不置一詞。接著,在極其悲涼的法語歌曲中,舞者們開始舞動,奔馳的男舞者有時像在互相追逐、械鬥、較勁;其中一段女舞者的獨舞,又彷彿自殘般地讓人感到痛楚。幾座大型電風扇吹拂着女舞者的長髮和裙擺。接著,燈光漸暗,一位男舞者騎著一輛老舊的「鐵馬」腳踏車,後座搭載著一位神情默然呆滯的女舞者,閃電不時劃過,強烈的閃光照亮闃黑的舞台,忽明忽滅。所有舞者都身穿1960年代年輕人穿著的花襯衫和長裙洋裝,彷彿重回楊德昌導演電影《牯嶺街少年殺人事件》的場景,散發一絲懷舊而悲涼的氣息。舞作接近尾聲時,男子們屈膝緩行,將一個個玻璃瓶逐一排列在舞台上,每個玻璃瓶中都插著一朵花,是否隱喻著六○年代美國woodstock搖滾音樂會,戴花反越戰的少年?舞作中,回憶與渴望相互交織,道盡人生旅途中不停的擦肩而過,與所求不得的憂傷。 《西風的話》呈顯伍國柱掌握舞蹈劇場形式的企圖,恰如其份地發揮口語和道具的功能,表現年輕人內在的徬徨,也顯露他擅於運用音樂的調性來襯托舞作氛圍的才華。


《前進,又後退》是伍國柱2001為雲門2團編創的一支詼諧小品。最初,一位背對觀眾的女舞者蹲在舞台前,忽然起立轉身,現出她大腹便便的身軀,並且在觀眾面前啃噬著長條狀的法國麵包,接著她又很無厘頭地從她的衣服裡取出佯裝孩子的枕頭,再加入群舞的行列。所有舞者不分男女都穿著高領橫條紋的T-shirt,黑色舞鞋、短褲,以及白色芭蕾舞tutu裙。伴隨著輕快的小提琴協奏曲,舞者除了做出一些輕盈的舞蹈動作之外,還安排了不少模仿啄木鳥、猩猩、以手掌摀嘴、拍臉的戲擬動作,開了西方芭蕾傳統一個小小的玩笑,也對既有陳規之必要性提出幽默的質問。


2004年,三十四歲的伍國柱應林懷民之邀,返台編創《在高處》期間,意外發現自己罹患血癌,這支舞作因而相當程度地反映了他當時對未知的恐懼。在陰暗的舞台上,國家戲劇院舞台後方的防火牆升起,舞者在縱深達二十公尺、寬十三公尺、沒有翼幕的空曠舞台急速奔舞,隨著音樂柔和與激盪的情緒中,變化出錯綜複雜的舞蹈路徑,像困獸般嘶吼,用力咧著嘴,讓人直接聯想到挪威籍的表現主義畫家孟克(Edvard Munch, 1863~1944)的名作《吶喊》中,張著大口呼號的人。事實上,個體對群體之間的巨大孤獨絕望與吶喊,是貫穿孟克繪畫的特質,而《在高處》則是伍國柱透過舞蹈呈現「生命重量下的微笑」。舞者幾度手臂大開,熱切地想擁抱生命卻又頹倒,隱喻意志與現實之間的搏鬥。幾段獨舞表現個人在眾人之間的孤寂,舞者一次又一次地撲倒在地,踉蹌著身子匍匐前進。其中一段女舞者的獨舞, 只見她站立著,下腰向後彎身至極限,以一種非常艱難的姿態挺住身軀,極力張嘴,又突然以嘴巴咬住手,彷彿亟欲釋放強大的內在壓抑;此段配合以鐵琴演奏的巴哈《耶蘇,世人渴望的音樂》清唱劇第147號樂曲,傳達給觀眾一種悲不可抑的寂涼之感。舞評家盧健英在《宿命又抗命的世代風景》一文中表示:「《在高處》明顯地,非舞蹈科系出身的伍國柱要求舞者忘記『專業的』身體框架,從『專業』解放為『常人』,像常人般奔跑、躍起、跌仆、喘息,在簡單而重覆的摀耳、掩面、搓身,形構出整支舞作具有時代感的肢體美學。」身為虔誠基督徒的伍國柱,則引用《聖經》之言:「在高處也是在最深處、最低處。」做為註解。面對最粗礪的人生磨難,內心最深處的悔恨、遺憾,伍國柱將心靈和肉體所承受的劇痛,透過《在高處》展現在舞台上,直陳無諱。


接著,節奏強烈調性激昂的音樂取代巴哈樂曲,所有舞者再度奔出,燈光明朗。眾人揮舞雙拳,像是不解地對詢問上帝:「為什麼是我?為什麼是我?為什麼是我?」隨後,眾人又奔入後台,獨留另一位女舞者, 同樣的巴哈《耶穌,世人渴望的音樂》樂曲再度淡出,這次不再是單音鐵琴的樂音,而是複音人聲吟唱,配合著多種器樂的協奏曲;複音人聲取代單音鐵琴,人和上帝的距離似乎更接近了。此時,這位女舞者獨立蒼茫,雙手背在背後,張大了嘴,慢慢仰頭向上尋索著光。接著,她從右手緩緩拿出一支手電筒,照向自己的臉部,身體抽慉、抖動著,其他舞者慢慢加入,每個人都緩緩拿起手電筒映照自己木然的臉。如同舞蹈學者陳雅萍所言:「舞作最後所呈現的黑暗之沈重教人倒抽一口氣,原來人們竭力攀住的微光竟是自我欺騙製造假象。最後,手電筒一一熄滅,只剩下一名女舞者手上孤獨的亮光,就在我暗想這最後的希望是否能留存時,舞台只剩下一片無盡的黑暗。」我認為,《在高處》,是伍國柱預先為自己譜寫的安魂曲。


三、評析《斷章》:


在2003年6月21日,伍國柱從德國傳真回台的一份信函中寫道:Oculus(斷章),拉丁文,「眼睛」的意思。後來的人相信保護船隻的神衹是住在船頭的。所以就在船頭的兩側各挖了一個小洞,一個圓形的洞,這個洞也叫Oculus。《斷章》演出節目單上則寫著:「(Oculus)或指眼狀窗孔,一如羅馬萬神殿大圓穹頂毫無遮蓋的圓窗口。也許伍國柱是想說:在層層束縛的生命裡,也可以看得到天光、看得到希望。」


曾和伍國柱一起工作的舞者這樣描述他:「他永遠都跟別人不同,他永遠都無法接受自己。他找不到安靜。平和,而這就是他的生命狀態。」種種呈現在伍國柱作品中的矛盾,某種程度呼應了存在主義哲學家叔本華所說的:「我們可以從兩個相反的觀點去看每個人。從一個觀點看,他的生命是短暫的,他會犯錯,也會憂傷,他起始於時間之中,也終結於時間之中;然而,從另一個觀點看,他是不能消滅的,他是一切存在事物中,客觀化的原始生命。」 呈現在伍國柱《斷章》中的,就是這種既陰暗,又渴望明亮的內在情境。


空曠的舞台上,豎立一棵令人直接聯想到荒謬劇場劇作家貝克特(Samuel Beckett, 1906~1989, 1969年獲瑞典皇家學院頒贈諾貝爾文學獎)劇作《等待果陀》中的枯樹,以及一道斜越過舞台的小路。舞作一開始,一群身穿大衣的舞者集聚燈下,向上仰望,像在期待什麼事情發生,齊聲發出驚嘆。法國作曲家比才《卡門組曲》中的〈鬥牛士之歌〉劃破寂靜,眾舞者齊奔回側台,獨留下一位僅著紅色底褲,赤裸上身的女舞者,作著傻笑、搔癢、拍打額頭、抽慉、張嘴、翻滾之類的癡愚動作。接著眾多男女舞者,一樣裸身出場,先是僵直身子逐步後退,之後又做著類似前一位女舞者那樣的搔癢、張嘴……動作,個個表情呆滯。舞台上的銀幕播放著天空雲朵緩緩移動的影像。眾人的皮膚似乎奇癢難耐,仰臥在地上,不停地搔癢和抽動身體。當搔癢這類私密,甚至可說是不雅的動作,成為集體一致的動作展現在眾人面前,反而產生一種奇異的感染力,召喚觀眾身體的記憶,儘管這種身體記憶並不是舒適的,但它確實是人類共有的體驗。在持續的「搔癢」過程中,引出「痛」的記憶和感覺;傷痛使人的生活停滯,時間凝結,卻也因此而喚醒封凍的記憶。


眾人動作齊一地撲倒在地,重重地翻滾、伸屈身體、站立又撲倒,再一同離去。唯獨一位女舞者,被排除在人群之外,偶爾加入眾人,但大部分的時候,她總是獨自一人,孤立在陰暗舞台一柱微弱的聚光燈之下,環抱著自己裸露的軀體,在一陣靜默中凝視著自己尷尬的處境;眾人穿上襯衫、長褲、洋裝,或遊竄於其周邊,或屈膝跺腳,或使勁地舞動身體,再沒入後台。獨立裸身的女子臉上掛著詭譎的笑容,漸漸轉為炫然欲泣的表情,頃刻,淚水滑過她的面頰,隨即轉身離去,眾人游逸而出。對於個體與群體關係的探討,是伍國柱舞作中一再出現的主題,而他慣用的舞蹈動作:搔癢、吶喊、跺腳、吹氣、伸展、抖動、迴旋、喘息、撫摸、群體與個人關係的辯證……等,在《斷章》中反覆出現,舞者以強大的精力一再地重覆上述的動作,不僅產生荒謬效果,更因次數的增加而製造疏離感,使得每次的重覆都產生不同的意義。對伍國柱的舞者而言,傳達情緒張力和情感質地,遠比表現精準的動作來得困難而複雜。有別於Pina Bausch舞蹈劇場的則是,Pina Bausch讓她的舞者使用較多口語來敘說故事情節;但是,學戲劇出身的伍國柱,反而較少使用語言,而選擇直接以舞者的身體來鋪陳舞作的情境;而在伍國柱大多數的舞作中,情境的鋪陳往往更甚於情節的闡述。


《斷章》中有一段男女雙人舞,彷彿兩位情竇初開的青少年,展開一場欲說還休的對話。初始,男孩羞澀地一步步靠近女孩,女孩卻賭氣般地拒斥男孩,刻意與男孩保持距離。男孩棄而不捨,兩人相視無言。接著,男孩在女孩跟前來來去去,並將女孩推向前方,女孩則故意和男孩唱反調般地回到原處,兩人重複這組動作多次。女孩屈就於男孩的指使,卻也倔強地抱頭、倒地、反抗,男孩則執意要女孩配合他。在這段雙人舞中,他們的動作僵硬不自然,而且帶著幾分滑稽;再者,此段並無任何配樂,因而使我聯想起二十世紀默片大師卓別林(Charlie Chaplin, 1889~1977)的電影中那些小人物,他們的動作就帶有這種僵硬和滑稽的質地。作為一位戲劇系畢業的高材生, 伍國柱必定深諳貝克特荒謬劇和卓別林默片的精髓,從《斷章》的舞台設計和此段雙人舞的動作編排,不難令我聯想到,編舞家伍國柱試圖藉由《斷章》,向他所心儀的劇作家貝克特和默片電影大師卓別林致敬。而這段雙人舞,著實以最抽象的手法,傳達最真實的男女關係狀態――渴望互相擁抱,卻又因性格和性別的差異而不自覺地互相傷害,呼應了叔本華之言:「人是互相擁抱的刺蝟。」情人之間的關係尤然。


舞者從舞作最初時的裸身,接著穿上襯衫或洋裝,最後又套上厚重的大衣,象徵人類在社會制約下所經歷的三個不同階段:裸身的舞者宛若初生的赤子、不畏初生之犢,而且無分男女舞者皆裸身,意味人類的普世本質並無二致;穿上襯衫、洋裝,代表踏入社會的人們,必須壓抑本我和自我,遵守社會遊戲規則、服膺社會規範;而秋葉翻飛之後,舞者又加上禦寒的冬衣,象徵進一步社會化的成年人必須承載生命的責任和重擔。作家郝譽祥道:「或許伍國柱所嚮往的,仍是一個原始的烏托邦,而在其中,人的身體可以得到自由,赤裸,奔放,展露出純粹的生之活力,以及一股自在來去的獨立性,在群體之中,可以時而疏離,時而加入,時而對話,又時而喃喃自語。」



表現主義畫家孟克的《生命之舞》(The Dance of Life, 1899~1900)這幅油畫中,描繪了一群在河岸邊草地上起舞的人,其中有三位女性在畫面中佔據著主要位置,美術史學家咸認為,她們分別象徵著女性一生的三個不同階段:畫面左側穿白裙的女子是一位處女,紅潤的面頰泛著微笑,宛如她面前展顏的花朵,對生命懷著憧憬和希望,其長裙的白色象徵著少女的純潔。紅衣女子象徵成熟女性的戀愛與情慾,她的裙擺與和她共舞男性衣服之黑色相溶,暗示兩人之間的性關係。而與白色少女呈對比的,則是位於最右側的黑衣婦人,她雙手交疊,面露憂鬱神色,顯得十分孤獨,其深色長裙象徵年華老去的婦人對於青春的殤逝,內心的暗淡與哀傷。《斷章》中的舞者服裝之於伍國柱,也如同《生命之舞》這幅畫中的服裝顏色,承載著符號意義。伍國柱的舞作,的確承自德國表現主義以降的藝術流派,富有表現主義風格,舞以載道,使「身體」成為人類智慧、思維、情感的載體,而《斷章》,也無疑是一支「生命之舞」。


從六歲開始學習小提琴的伍國柱,對於音樂的運用具有獨到的見解。以德國作曲家帕海貝爾《D大調卡農與吉格》入舞的段落而言,通常卡農予人的感受是愉悅而甜美的,但伍國柱在《斷章》中所安排的卡農場景,卻是令舞者在陰暗的舞台上靜默不動――一群舞者佇立在左舞台內側,仰望天空,雙手掌心向上;另一位女舞者隻身站立在右舞台外側,遠離眾人,低頭不語。雲朵飄移,地球轉動,舞台上所有人的生命卻停格了。在此,伍國柱接連使用這段漫長的卡農樂曲兩次,第一次卡農結束,群舞者一齊走入後台,整個舞台上,只留下方才落單的那位女舞者,在第二度播放的卡農樂聲中,伴著枯樹、落葉、灰雲,一個人在昏暗而空曠的舞台上起舞。只見她緩緩展開雙臂,隨即又縮回,接著她的手部,彷彿被無形的繩索牽引著,將其拖向各個不同的方向。只見她的動作質地大抵是拘謹而控制得宜的流動、強勁的動力,以急促而突然的速度朝著明確的向度,顯現這股無以名狀的拉力極為巨大、來自四面八方,將人操控於鼓掌之間,讓人不得不屈從於這股神秘不可知的力量。 伍國柱以甜美的劇場元素,溫暖的卡農樂曲,傳達其內在巨大的孤寂和憂傷,以強大的反差凸顯孤獨的無從頓逃。值得注意的是,伍國柱偏好在一支舞作中的不同段落,安排同一支樂曲重複出現兩次,然而,這兩個音樂相同的舞作段落,卻產生完全相異的動作語彙和情感質地。


相對於Pina Bausch大部分的舞作都是對男與女、人與人、人與社會的關係,投以既感性又尖銳的批判,伍國柱的舞作,往往帶有微妙的荒謬與幽默,一再重複著焦慮、漠然、無助、困頓、疏離、衝突、矛盾的情境,竟連天光雲影,都帶著淡淡的哀愁。德國舞評家Jochen Schmidt認為,Pina Bausch的生命與創作中,最大推動力是「恐懼」;我認為,伍國柱《斷章》的創作核心則是「孤獨」。


然而,無論處境如何悲涼,人生多麼寂寥,世界多麼荒謬,伍國柱的內心深處,始終懷藏著對於人性的希望。就像舞作最末,繫在舞者指間的彩色氣球,釋放生命中不可承受之輕,希冀在自我追尋的過程中,靈魂得以超脫肉身,終而獲得救贖。

四、結語:


1973年,時值27歲的林懷民秉持著「中國人跳舞給中國人看」的信念創辦雲門舞集,30年後,青年編舞家伍國柱則說:「人跳舞給人看。」時代變遷,伍國柱這一代的台灣人,不再背負著沈重的歷史包袱,擁有更大的自由和更多的選擇。伍國柱的編舞才華指日可待,只可惜上帝的決定讓人措手不及,在世界舞壇初露頭角的伍國柱,甫以強大的意志達到「成為專業編舞家」的目標,卻無力抗拒命運的安排、現實的無奈。


Jochen Schmidt曾以這樣的話語形容Pina Bausch:「她想以消遣的方式將我們和她自己從困苦中引開。但她同時也希望經由她的藝術克服死亡,達到一點點的不朽。這位編舞家試圖在含淚中微笑。」這段話語,用來描述伍國柱的舞蹈和人生,似乎也並不為過。而存在主義哲學家尼采《悲劇的誕生》一書中的話語:「太陽已經沉落,但我們生命的蒼穹依然因它而絢麗輝煌,儘管我們已經不再看見它。」則為伍國柱短暫而燦爛的人生,寫下一個小小的句點。儘管我們悲嘆:倘若伍國柱不是那麼早逝,台灣舞蹈必定因他而具有更多可能性,然而,人生的進程終究是無法預知的。人生縱使有憾,但求盡興無悔。日本作家芥川龍之介說過:「人生不過是一行波特萊爾。」伍國柱已經用他的舞作,寫下了他的生命之詩;最後,以其最美的身姿,向觀眾道別,在人生舞台上優雅地謝幕。

Philosopher in Dance ――――――― on Saburo Teshigawara’s “Absolute Zero”, “Luminous” and “Bones in Pages”

Motif

After the era of Butoh, there are many experimental dance companies established in Japan. “Study of Live works Baneto (Study of Live works 発条ト)”, “Kim Itoh + the Glorious Future (伊藤キム+輝く未来)”, “Batik”, “Nibroll (ニブロール)”, “Shintai Hyogen Circle (身体表現サークル, Body Art Circle)”, “Chelfitsch (チェルフィッチュ)”, “Idevian Crew (イデビアン・クルー)” “Dump Type” and “Leni-Basso” are some examples. Dancers and choreographers such as Tsuyoshi Shirai (白井剛), Ikuyo Kuroda (黒田育世), Natsuko Tezuka (手塚夏子), Un Yamada (山田うん), Shigehiro Ide (井手茂太), Mikuni Yanaihara (矢内原美邦), Toshiki Okada (岡田利規), Mika Arashiki (新鋪美佳), Mari Fukutome (福留麻里), Yutaka Joraku (常樂泰) use mixed-media and multi-elements to create new possibility for modern dance. Some of them were rooted in the Butoh tree. As if Butoh blossoms into a mutation as a black flower in the garden of modern dance, post-Butoh Japanese choreographer grow as different flowers from the Butoh tree. Other choreographers are not from the context of Butoh genealogy. They develop their brand new vocabularies.

Among the new generations, well-known Japanese contemporary choreographer Saburo Teshigawara(勅使川原三郎) is also a noted dancer and visual artist of great talent. He is no doubt one of dance masters in the world because he develops his original aesthetics for the art of dance. Teshigawara and his dance company “KARAS” were invited to Taiwan for 3 times to perform his dance pieces Absolute Zero(1998,絕對零度) in 2001, Luminous(2001,電光石火)in 2003, and Bones in Pages(new version 2003,人體書頁)in 2007. I went for all of these performances as well as his symposiums before/after performances and I was extremely shocked. Invisible energy and “Chi” (氣)hanged in the air even the stage was as empty as what it was in Absolute Zero. Based on his faith "the freedom of dance is the freedom of the dancer", Teshigawara creates new language of dance beyond classical ballet, modern dance, Butoh, and post-modern dance. As a unique artist who is almost a philosopher, Saburo Teshigawara touches my heart.

Saburo Teshigawara never admitted and never denied his relationship with Butoh(舞踏). However, his strangeness was shown in his philosophic thought and “dangerous body”, the concept might has something to do with the former of Butoh ―― Tatsumi Hijikata(土方巽)regarded body as a ash stick which topples in a flash.

I attempt to describe, interpret and analyze Teshigawara’s Absolute Zero, Luminous, and Bones in Pages in order to realize his choreographic philosophy in dance.


Background of Saburo Teshigawara and KARAS

http://www.st-karas.com/

Saburo Teshigawara took his basic training in plastic arts and classic ballet in his hometown Tokyo. In 1981, he began his career as an artist. In 1985, he formed “KARAS” with a female dancer Kei Miyata(宮田佳) and started group choreography and their own activities. “KARAS” means “the crow” in Japanese. In Taiwan and many countries, the crow popularly is regarded as a bird of ill omen. On the contrary, the crow is the symbol of luckiness in Japan.

In addition to solo performances and his work with KARAS, Teshigawara has also been invited to choreograph for other dance companies. In 1994/95 he choreographed for the Ballet Frankfurt at the invitation of William Forsythe, Le Sacre du Printemps for the Bayern National Ballet in 1999, Netherland Dance Theater I in 2000. In 2003, Teshigawara was invited to choreograph a new piece AIR for the Paris Opera. Besides, Teshigawara often created installation, designed lighting and costume or edited music for his work.

Kei Miyata is the artistic co-director, as well as the managing director of KARAS which is based in Japan and the United Kingdom. She majored in English and American dramatic literature at St. Margaret’s College in Tokyo. She collaborated on all of Teshigawara’s projects and selected the sound and music for his works. Rihoko Sato(佐東利穗子)is the choreographic assistant of KARAS who learned gymnastics in England and the United States since her childhood. After participating in KARAS’ workshop in 1995, Sato joined the group in 1996. Members of KARAS share their stylized creation and concept about body, space and movement.

Workshops held at the KARAS Studio in Tokyo. Besides, a joint educational project called "S.T.E.P." (Saburo Teshigawara Education Project)has been initiated since 1995 with partners in the UK. Since 2006, Teshigawara has begun a professorship at St. Paul’s University(Rikkyo University立教大學) in Japan, where he teaches movement theory and leads workshops.


Absolute Zero (1998)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IehdpI3wFkU&mode=related&search=

On the stage which was almost bare, Teshigawara and Miyata danced their duet Absolute Zero. Picture of flowers or portrait of a western young lady in the style of classicalism appeared in screen once in a while. Light and music were soft and tender. Mysterious aura brought the condition of total stillness. Teshigawara’s movement was almost fluent flow passing through his poetic body. Oriental “Zen” and “Chi” vaguely emerged out of air. Each element was exactly pure.

In most of sections, Teshigawara danced his solo. It seemed like meditation when Teshigawara stood as a liquefied sculpture. But sudden energy and amazing speed broke out the stillness. Sometimes he swirled round and round dizzily with his arms moving up and down quickly. In a flash, he melted with air. In some sections, Teshigawara and Miyata danced duet without touching each other. They kept their distance and taking possession of individual movement. Miyata’s motion is simple. Sometimes she just rose her arms by turns making circles slowly. However, amazingly, inner connection between Teshigawara and Miyata showed up gradually. Air and “Chi” of this duo mingled as an elegant coherence. Although air is invisible, I still saw air and “Chi” pervaded in the stage. In the end of the work, music of Mozart inspired everyone to sublimation of soul.

In Teshigawara’s opinion, dance is a way to get alone with the world and to play with the world. Just like air filled with every space, it is invisible but exists everywhere. Teshigawara said, “It took me very long time to have the dialogue and conversation with air. It’s very essential for dancers to perceive many things simultaneously.” Talking about space, he said, “Space is the field with time. A dancer himself/herself is also the space. Dancers not only influenced by space but also dominate space. Space is a variation. It is always altering or changing. It is lived and vivid. Dancers have to take charge of flow of time in the space. Gaze of audience is very important, so is the energy which audience gives dancers.”

In the press conference before Teshigawara’s debut in Taiwan, Mr. LIN Huai-min praised him as a genius choreographer/dancer who eliminated the bounding line between the east and the west, tradition and modern. His body presented organic changes and the changes were almost “fatigue of love”. Teshigawara replied him with excitement, “Yes, this is indeed what I feel. The happiness of dancing is similar to the happiness of falling in love. Dance is the adventure towards love and feelings.” Without risks, nothing will be found in this tour for self seeking.


Luminous(2001)

In 2001, by the end of Teshigawara’s symposium in Taipei, he told audience he was working with a blind boy for exploring other possibility of dance and the lived body. And then, he took Luminous, the blind boy Stuart and partners of KARAS to Taiwan in 2003.

Mixed media guided the main style of his stage. In the first half, Teshigawara in white appeared under dark light. He kept his center of gravity low. Owing to very dim light, his figure showed as silhouette. Young dancers joined the performance to dance around installation ── large squares of glass hang close to the floor at times. And then, Stuart Jackson, a young man who was blind at birth danced his solo in the dark. Without vision, Stuart perceived the space on stage by sound and heat of light fading in. Stuart run and turned faster. Teshigawara and black actor Evroy Deer with his voice reading a poem of Teshigawara entered. Three of them extended their relationship with body, space, light on the stage.

In the beginning of the second half, the stage was exactly dark. Dancers put on tight customs in fluorescence. Therefore, their bodies became the origin of light. Light came out of dancers instead of throwing to them as usual. Evroy deer and his vocal flew with them. Numerous phantoms run and spread hither and thither. Illusion released. Finally, Teshigawara and Stuart shared their duet on the brighter stage with their arms catching air. Stuart was like a flower searching for light. His skin felt heat of stage light. How happy they were because they were dancing in the center of the cosmos. Stuart never saw light but he felt bright. Blind people may dance with ordinary people. Blind people themselves are luminous bodies.

Absolute Zero is a work about communication between body and air. Luminous is about relationship of body and light.

Teshigawara had to hold Stuart’s hand in the very beginning they worked together. Gradually, Stuart felt the breath of himself and others. By this way, he recognized his own body and space he existed. Finally, he may danced alone and circle around rapidly on the stage. This was the process how he got close to his inner aspects.


Bones in Pages(new version 2003)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ta8O6HhDAgM

Bones in Pages was originally a solo piece by Teshigawara which was originally created at TAT(Theater am Turm), Frankfurt, in 1991. Teshigawara danced in his installation work “Dance of air” in the center front of the stage, which was created with many books, shoes, a live crow, and other various elements. After more than 10 years, this piece was recreated and given life again in 2003. 2 senior dancers, Miyata and Sato joined this piece. In 2007 version performed in Taipei Novel Hall, a crow didn’t appear because Taiwan people usually regard crow as bad fortune. Besides, it was hard to find crows in Taiwan. Any other kind of birds was not proper substitute. Teshigawara said he would like to set himself and a crow in a cage for a joke but finally gave up the idea.

The intention of Bones in Pages began with the concept of mixed media installation. Eight hundreds open books inlayed in left wall and the ground. Three hundreds shoes spread on the other side of the floor. A round desk with a lot of glass inserted and a chair was by the desk. Another set of round desk with two chairs were cut off as left half and right half, then were separated by limpid glass. The flat of the stage was the shape of a trapezoid. The whole installation implied the being which used to live. Books which kept memory and shoes lost their owners were reminders history, the existence and disappearance of time. This installation which Teshigawara named it as “Dance of air” created a small space. He made it smaller on purpose because he wanted to feel much pressure of compression in this space. His body was under control of books and this limited space. Meanwhile, “The feeling of being limited, trapped or oppressed is kind of very important feeling about the existence of body.” Teshigawara said.

In the darkness, Teshigawara sat in fornt of a small round desk full of sharp glass and bend down his head. Little by little, he lifted up his head with mysterious emotional expression and reflection of shattered glass in his face. When he got out of the chair to dance his solo, his body spoke his unique personal language. He danced in different kinds of speed and quality. Sometimes he twitched his feet fast but kept his trunk and arms softly. As the light changed, the soft string music appeared indistinctly, both arms that he launched waved like a bird. Wind blew beneath his wings. Later, Kei Miyata’s solo as another bird performed. And then, Rihoko Sato put on black costume as Saburo Teshigawara but she wore a mask like a phantom. She showed up and danced in-between hundreds shoes and then she picked up several shoes and then she threw the shoes in the direction of audience. Shoes were stopped by a net and every audience including me were very surprise because the net was invisible for no one to perceive before her throw.

Saburo Teshigawara said, “Body is similar to life. There are lots of conflicts in body. So is life. People have to tolerate these conflicts and fight them. The process by which life recovered is the inner aspects of body. I am very interested in the process of a shape turn into the other one. This is the same with the inner aspects of my body. The meaning of books in Bones in Pages is not literary but material. To be a dancer, you have to train your body everyday and keep your brain thinking everyday.”


Conclusion

Saburo Teshigawara is always experimental in dance. For example, in his early experiment in 1987, he used to dig a deep straight hole in the ground and covered up himself in. Only his head appeared outside. He tried to feel his body in the ground. And then, he explored many physical elements such as air, light, speed. Recently, he worked with blind people. Without story-telling and representation, abstract connection among people still exists in his work. Compare with other modern dance pieces such as Portraits of the Families of Cloud Gate or When Nights Were Dark of Eiko and Koma, the way Saburo Teshigawara uses light is material instead of descriptive.

As dance scholar CHEN Ya-pin said, “Saburo Teshigawara’s dance is a thick and dense dialogue among the heterogeneous elements. His body is molded and melts with the refined control at amazing speed, poetic atmosphere lasts in air.” I agree Saburo Teshigawara’s work is abstract poetry. In Japan, dancers of post-Butoh generation try to transcend the hegemony of Butoh. Saburo Teshigawara, the dancer/choreographer creates new Japan image is the first one who does it successfully.

飛遷南國的黃色蝴蝶——日本舞踏藝術家秦Kanoko《天然之美》再現樂生院民身體之美

【摘要】:


發韌於1959年的「日本舞踏」,承襲德國表現主義舞蹈風格以及達達主義的反思精神,在舞蹈的園畝上,開出一朵異色的內省之花,震撼全球舞壇和當代藝術界。日本舞踏家秦Kanoko自1998年首度訪台後,與台灣結下不解之緣:移居台北、在台灣發表多支舞踏作品,2005年更在台灣創立「黃蝶南天舞踏團」, 藉其移民經驗,以舞蹈作為媒介,和台灣社會產生跨文化的深度對話。

本研究以2006年,秦Kanoko於樂生療養院中山堂發表的舞作《天然之美》為文本,藉以闡釋其作品所承載的三重邊緣性:(一)、曾為日本帝國主義霸權統治下的殖民地台灣;(二)、向來為父權所宰制的舞踏,藉由一位女舞者的身體所表露的女性身體經驗和主體意識;(三)、舞踏相對於主流價值的異質身體美學,以衰弱的病體顛覆主流社會的審美判斷,再現樂生院民身體之美、生之尊嚴。

 
舞蹈園畝上的異色奇葩


循著世界舞蹈史的脈絡看來,每一種具有開創性的舞蹈形式,每一位影響舞蹈史發展的舞蹈家,都以其獨特的姿態叛逆了前賢的規範——舉凡鄧肯(Isadora Duncan, 1877~1927)、尼金斯基(Vaslav Nijinsky, 1889~1950)、瑪麗•魏格曼(Mary Wigman, 1886~1973)、 喬治•巴蘭欽(George Balanchine, 1904~1983)、瑪莎•葛蘭姆(Martha Graham, 1894~1991)、碧娜•鮑許(Pina Bausch, 1940~2009)、摩斯•康寧漢(Merce Cunningham, 1919~2009)等舞蹈大師,無一不是箇中翹楚,而日本前衛舞蹈——舞踏(Butoh)亦具備前述特質,其高度的原創性與殊異的身體美學,對全球舞蹈界和劇場界造成極大的震撼。

咸認為舞踏發韌於1959年,由土方巽(Hijikata Tatsumi, 1928~1986) 與大野慶人(Ohno Yoshito, 1938~ )共同演出由三島由紀夫同名小說改編而成的舞作《禁色》(Kinjiki/Forbidden Colors)揭開序幕,在舞蹈的園畝上,開出一朵異色的奇葩。舞踏宗師大野一雄(Ohno Kazuo, 1906~2010 )與土方巽的舞蹈學習史,則可上溯至1934年,大野一雄觀賞德國表現主義舞蹈家哈洛德•克羅伊茲柏格(Harald Kreutzberg, 1902~1968) 的舞蹈表演之後,深受感動,轉而向曾經學習過德國表現主義舞蹈的日本舞蹈家石井漠(Ishii Baku, 1887~1962)以及江口隆哉(Eguchi Takaya, 1900~1977)習舞。 大野一雄的首度公開演出,一直要到第二次世界大戰結束之後的1949年,時值他四十三歲那年,與江口隆哉的學生安藤三子(Ando Mitsuko)合作時,才在東京的「神田公共會館」登場。另一方面,土方巽也曾在他的家鄉秋田市,與江口隆哉的另外一位學生增村克子(Masumura Katsuko)學習過舞蹈。而土方巽在1949年首度造訪東京時,碰巧於「神田公共會館」看見了大野一雄與安藤三子的演出,並且受到大野舞蹈風格的震撼。1952年,為了習舞的土方巽遷移至東京定居,並且開始與江口隆哉以及安藤三子學習舞蹈。在1953年時,土方巽曾經在電視上演出了一段由安藤三子所編的舞蹈作品,而也就是這個機緣,使得土方巽終於正式地認識了大野一雄。此後,年齡相差二十二歲的大野一雄與土方巽成為情誼甚篤的創作夥伴,兩人分享了自己對於德國舞蹈方法的獨到詮釋。

基於現代舞所持的精神內涵,及其反映現實動亂社會現象的使命;再者,更警覺於日本舞蹈漸漸受西方舞蹈影響而失去原有的風貌,有鑑於此,自1930年代起開始受到德國表現舞蹈啟發的大野一雄和土方巽,從這兩個背景訴求之中,發展出一套舞蹈的「殘破美學」,重新詮釋身體語言,藉此解放日本身體文化之原型,並試圖對日本皇權提出批判。由於舞踏的基本精神起於反叛,因此第一代舞踏的舞蹈風格傾向以最原始、最暴戾的聲音和動作來傳播其藝術理念,對兩次世界大戰和長崎、廣島原爆等歷史創傷提出深刻反省。身體權力的辨證、性與暴力的主題常為舞踏家用以表達其理念的核心;而舞踏獨特的美學形式,暗示著其原創性與革命性的意識型態,例如:「全身抹白」一方面是延伸傳統歌舞伎中的假面化之意義,使表演聚焦於心靈的展露,另一方面,則是要把每一個人的差異性都抹掉,去個體化,使人回歸自然、回歸單純;「光頭」象徵著脫離紅塵、重回母體的原胎;「性倒錯」,亦即「性別倒錯」,意為女扮男裝或是男扮女裝,則是對於現今社會男女角色地位被固定的反動,企圖尋找人性中同質且人人皆具的原始根性; 「蟹形腳」使身體的姿勢下沉,這種向下蹲伏的行為是種自我中心的壓縮,使舞者的身體退回到種子、蛋核、胎兒、蠶蛹、蠶繭的一種狀態。 舞踏使日本人真正認識自己縮曲而有別於西方人的身體,再者,舞踏也展現了日本人在第二次世界大戰之後受屈辱的心情;因為「暗黑舞踏」所呈現的身體並不是西洋文藝復興時期所崇拜的黃金比例身體,而是戰敗後日本人的真實形態。舞踏沒有西方舞蹈那樣外炫的力量,而是儘量把情感壓抑在四塊榻榻米大的空間之內(此為一般日本人平均佔有的個人空間), 對日本人而言,場地愈小愈能使身體縮曲,如此一來,才可以籠罩住靈魂。舞踏家並不認為身體是物理構造,相反地,他們是根據「感性」來展現身體,這樣的表演方式,令西方人感到不可思議。土方巽反對舞蹈只講究舞者漂亮身姿的展現,相反地,他認為:舞蹈的目的,是為了用身體的知覺去體會反社會的解放感,因此,深藏於身體內部的慾念在土方巽的舞踏中就成為重要的哲學思想。為此,土方巽替舞踏找到了一個重要的精神狀態,就是一種由中心領域向外出走到邊緣的意識,用異質性的活力來顛覆一個宿命的日常規律,這種顛覆性的、異質性的活力來自於對自己肉體的確認。異質性的活力,誘使原本潛藏於肉體黑暗處的「色慾」(eroticism),使其徹底地顛覆桎梏於程式化動作中的身體。瑪莎‧葛蘭姆利用腹部至肛門這條經絡產生身體動作的伸縮作用,讓感情的表達透露著一股引出「色慾」的肉體慾望。土方巽亦是將身體重力集中於下腹部,探尋身體的「支點」,所以身體必須呈半蹲狀,雙足還要形成八字狀,身體在這樣的狀態中,感受到生殖器的存在,精神意識漸漸進入一種恍惚的情境之中,彷如莊子所提到的「輒然忘吾有四肢形」。土方巽說過,肉體的解放並不是來自一發不可收拾的情緒氾濫,肉體解放的真正來源,正是這種欲仙欲死的恍惚感。

此外,土方巽還從種種的自身體驗當中,意會到自己的身體知覺所衍生出來的意象,這其實就是自己在觀照自己身體內部的一個小宇宙,而這個小宇宙只有將現實的時間與空間疏隔開來之後,身體才能通過夕陽移動的視覺感、風聲拂過耳邊的聽覺感,一點一滴地累積更為純粹的時間意識與空間意識。舞踏手在表演時必須有一個假想空間,也就是說,用一個心理空間來容納一個像是種植在土地上的樹木一樣的身體。舞踏的「動作」是在於細膩地將感知事物的過程一點一滴地表現出來,像風拂過皮膚的過程,在皮膚上立即產生知覺變化,形成自己身體內部的一個小宇宙。而舞踏手的身體重心落在下肢,乃源自於日本農耕文化。農耕民族基於人對土地所懷有的神聖感,特別選擇下半身作為靈魂棲息之處。農耕民族的身體好像被種植在大地上的一棵樹,無論它長得再高大,它的根依然深植在土裡。農耕民族的舞蹈與土地的關係既然如此密切,身體動作的流動是以營造人類實際地存在於環境之中的某種空間意識為主要走向,這個空間意識的產生是因為身體動作在流動之中,漸漸牽動內在肉體活動而產生心靈的恍惚意境,為它所支配的表演現象,使一個表現身體與天地結合的心靈空間才得以實現。農耕民族的舞蹈有許多是為了表現對大地的崇拜,原因即在於此。王墨林認為:「就地心引力來詮釋舞蹈,西方人以『向上跳躍』來抗拒地心引力,東方人卻以『下沉禪定』的哲學來解決地心引力的宿命。 」

日本舞踏發展至今將屆五十年,已從早期的暗黑舞踏派衍生出「哈爾濱派」、「霧笛舍」、「北方舞踏派」、「早稻田舞踏派」、「背火」等諸多舞團和派別, 其中田中泯(Tanaka Min, 1945~ )、「大駱駝艦」(Dairakudakan)、「山海塾」(Sankai Juku)、「白虎社」(Byakkosha)、「白桃房」(Hakutobu)、Eiko & Koma(永子與高麗) 等國際知名舞踏家和舞踏團也發展出互異的身體美學。舞踏的另一源流「大駱駝艦」出自於日本戰後地下戲劇運動,雖然有別於土方巽與大野一雄的德國表現主義舞蹈系譜,但仍可以與同樣結合舞蹈與戲劇元素的碧娜•鮑許舞蹈劇場互為應和,突顯了二者與德國表現主義舞蹈的親聯屬性。

舞踏不僅對日本現代舞帶來莫大衝擊,更隨著國外巡迴演出襲捲世界舞壇和前衛劇場界,甚至有些西方表演藝術家自言受到日本舞踏影響,其概念在非日本語系國家亦受到廣泛的關注。 自1986年以來,已有諸多舞踏藝術家及舞團前來台灣演出╱演講╱主持工作坊,包括:大野一雄與大野慶人父子、「白虎社」、「山海塾」、「大駱駝艦」、Eiko & Koma夫婦、「白桃房」、「霧笛舍」的中嶋夏、「古舞族ァルタイ」(古舞族阿爾泰)的栗太郎和秦Kanoko師生。 1987年政治解嚴前後的台灣小劇場運動,甚至視覺藝術家諸如名列「世界百大藝術家」的陳界仁,或林鉅、高重黎、劉寅生等人所發表的錄像、影像、畫作、行為藝術等等,在創作觀念上都曾受到舞踏的影響。

本研究以2005年在台北「牯嶺街小劇場」創立台灣第一個舞踏團——「黃蝶南天」的編舞家秦Kanoko,2006年於台北縣新莊市「樂生療養院」發表的舞作《天然之美》為文本,藉以闡釋秦Kanoko舞作所承載的三重邊緣性:(一)、以「反近代」為標竿的日本舞踏,在高度資本主義社會中,堅持以左翼的、邊緣化的路線,抗拒國家體制宰制個人身體的權力結構,以衰弱的病體顛覆主流社會的審美價值,再現樂生院民異質、美麗卻被政府迫害的身體,及其生之尊嚴。(二)、原生於日本的舞踏,透過一位舞踏編舞家/舞者移植到台灣,與曾為日本帝國主義霸權統治下的殖民地台灣產生對話,繼而以台灣為根據地,取其自身的台灣經驗作為方法,超越東北亞視野,建構其「亞細亞巴洛克」美學。(三)、向來為父權所宰制的舞踏,藉由一位女性舞者的身體,表露女性身體經驗和主體意識的途徑,亦為本文所關注之議題。


黃色的蝴蝶飛越海洋,棲宿南方

1964年,秦Kanoko出生於日本北海道的最北端利尻島。二十歲那年,她從一所二年制女子短期大學保險系畢業,隨即進入一家公司擔任秘書;工作之餘,她也常在一家小型電影院為觀眾放映電影。1986年,時值二十二歲的秦Kanoko在日本北海道札幌一處名為「駅裏8号倉庫」的替代空間,看到了知名舞踏家田中泯的表演《理解 腐乱速度》。 田中泯稱自己的舞蹈為「超舞蹈」(hyper-dance),而不是「舞踏」。至今秦Kanoko依稀記得,在這場表演中,田中泯全身塗黑近乎全裸攤身躺在舞台上,皮膚乾燥足部龜裂;演出中的一個段落,田中泯挑釁觀眾,向他們潑灑日本清酒。這支舞作讓坐在觀眾席中,首度觀賞舞踏現場演出的秦Kanoko深受感動,她第一次感受到身體的存在,因而在1988年正式展開她的舞踏生涯,辭去秘書工作,加入「古舞族ァルタイ」,師承舞踏宗師土方巽嫡傳弟子的學生栗太郎(Kuritaro, 1952~ ) ,逐漸成為一位優異而活躍的舞踏手。 1998年1月,秦Kanoko接受「亞洲民眾文化協會」(Asian Council for People’s Culture,簡稱ACPC)邀請,赴菲律賓首都馬尼拉參加第三屆「亞洲的吶喊」(Cry for Asia)多元文化表演活動(Multi-Culture Performance)。在這段期間,秦Kanoko在巴亞達斯聚落裡, 目睹聚居在首都郊區煙山(Smokey Mountain)附近靠撿拾垃圾維生的人民極度悲苦的生活——這些一貧如洗的居民,在垃圾山旁搭建簡陋的房舍,無論成人或孩童,都在垃圾堆裡翻撿鐵罐、金屬、塑膠、玻璃瓶等可以換取微薄金錢的廢棄物維生,居民身上往往髒污不堪,鮮少有餘裕可以洗澡;由於過多的垃圾堆集此處,空氣中彌漫著一股因垃圾自燃而產生的煙幕、惡臭和廢氣,置身其間,人的眼睛往往被煙氣燻得難以張開;由於嚴重的空氣污染,再加上營養不良,許多母親生下畸形、肢障、水腦的孩子,也有不少幼童因而夭折;有時垃圾山因堆積過高而崩塌,來不及躲避的居民就會不幸罹難,葬身垃圾山。 觸及此等人間煉獄的實相,秦Kanoko內心受到非常大的衝擊,她表示:「離開日本,越過海峽到了菲律賓,我在那裡看到的是,身處在世界的矛盾中苟延殘喘,卻又拼命求生的人們。他們的身影,是我們無法迴避,必須睜眼直視的現實世界,我的藝術表現從那裡開始。」 在此處,秦Kanoko「看到在垃圾場中,收集垃圾維生的小孩子們,他們沒有任何退路;無所憑藉;卻使盡所有力氣,拼命想要活下去的身影;在那裡,我看到了我所必須對抗的『另一種舞踏』。我所追求的舞踏,應當是可以與在現實的日常生活當中,不斷溢出的『路邊的舞踏』相抗衡,具有同等光輝的舞踏。」 就是這一趟菲律賓行,促使秦Kanoko重新思考舞踏的本質,繼而展開一系列「亞細亞巴洛克」表演活動。

秦Kanoko在菲律賓馬尼拉參加第三屆「亞洲的吶喊」活動期間,結識台灣「差事劇團」團長鍾喬及團員李薇。儘管這兩位來自台灣的民眾劇場工作者,和秦Kanoko對於民眾劇場的理解存在著認知差距,但在拒斥資本主義、反西方霸權、反全球化的左翼路線上,他們三人無疑是一樣具有社會主義理想的同路人,因而,鍾喬邀請秦Kanoko到台灣,在差事劇場舉辦舞踏工作坊。1998年,秦Kanoko首度來到台灣,和台灣的前衛劇場工作者有一番深刻的交流,並且受邀在台舉辦舞踏工作坊。自此之後,秦Kanoko與台灣結下不解之緣,多次應邀到台灣主持舞踏工作坊,足跡遍及台北、台中、台南、高雄、台東等地。這段期間,秦Kanoko接觸許多台灣年輕人,他們大多曾接受嚴格的芭蕾舞、現代舞訓練,但她發現,這些年輕人渴望在既有的訓練之外,尋求在社會組織裡無法被規範的身體,在主流意識之外探索表現的可能性。

累積了多次與台灣劇場界朋友合作的經驗, 爲了更進一步思考舞踏和台灣的關係,2001年5月,秦Kanoko決定定居在台北縣深坑鄉,頻仍往返於台、日之間,漸漸在台灣搭起她表演舞踏的平台。從1998年至今,在這將近十年的時間裏,秦Kanoko不斷反省自己為什麼要如此奔波於兩地,持續她的舞踏創作。她釐清了這個事實:「在日本,『社會』是被掩蓋於現代化的底下;而在台灣,『社會』仍是被看得見的。」因此,她意識到,現在的日本,已經不再具備舞踏崛起時的社會條件,而透過她的台灣經驗,從台灣曾被日本殖民的歷史之中,秦Kanoko看到了台灣正在經歷日本近代史發展過程中,爲了朝向現代化所面臨的同樣的問題——社會的真實性將被掩蓋,弱勢族群的人權將被抹煞的事實。

2001年8月,秦Kanoko在台灣生下她的第一個女兒;2002年3月,她在懷有四個月身孕的情況下,在台北華山藝文特區演出新作《拼裝淨土》。這個作品反映了秦Kanoko對於台灣社會的觀察——台灣社會宛如一片由各種不同文化多元連結、拼湊而成的淨土;她認為台灣在歷史經驗、族群、語言、文化背景各方面都不是單一、統一的狀態,而是異質的組合;然而,無論社會多麼混雜、現實多麼荒誕,只要生活在台灣的人願意安身立命於此,此處就是「淨土」。舞踏始於藝術家和知識份子對於西方文化霸權的批判以及自身文化價值的再思,而秦Kanoko透過舞踏的身體,嘗試與台灣社會對話,並檢驗日本和台灣長久以來的複雜歷史關係。

2003年,文藝評論家/小劇場導演王墨林邀請秦Kanoko為「新寶島視障劇團」編創《目之獄》,這個合作經驗對秦Kanoko的創作歷程而言是一個重要的里程碑——這群眼盲的劇場演員,反而因為看不到萬物的外在形象,而真正體認舞踏的神髓,來自身體內在的能量。這個彌足珍貴的合作促使秦Kanoko整結她七年來的台灣經驗,2005年1月,秦Kanoko邀集「差事劇團」的李薇,以及「新寶島視障劇團」的李佩綺,成立台灣第一個舞踏團「黃蝶南天」,在牯嶺街小劇場發表創團作《瞬間之王》。團名「黃蝶南天」,意謂「黃色的蝴蝶飛越海洋抵達南方」,從北方的日本飛到南國台灣,棲宿於台北。事實上,「南方」的概念,對Kanoko而言並不僅止於台灣,也擴及她所關注的菲律賓,甚至其他亞洲國家。在地理位置上,台灣、日本、韓國、中國環繞/分享了整個中國海;在文化上,也同屬儒釋道文化圈,然在諸多相似性當中卻又存在著具體的文化差異。至於蝴蝶之所以是「黃色」的,具有雙重意義:首先,黃色很容易讓台灣人產生色慾的聯想,秦Kanoko藉此將其舞踏表現豔俗化、邊緣化;再者,「黃蝶」指涉自1995年以來,由「美濃愛鄉協進會」、「美濃反水庫後援自救會」、「八色鳥工作室」、「國際河流組織」(IRN)等國內外社團串連,以反對政府興建美濃水庫為訴求,每年於美濃水庫壩址預定地雙溪黃蝶翠谷舉辦的「美濃黃蝶祭」, 這層指涉,突顯了美濃居民堅守文化主體性和環保抗爭的訴求,也呼應了在日本舞踏產生過程中具有推波助瀾作用的「反美日安保鬥爭」運動,延續舞踏對國家與社會投注的人文關懷。

創團作《瞬間之王》中,盲人舞者李佩綺是社會邊緣人的象徵;她的身體是一副藉以對抗資本主義的「武器」,她的身體屬於公眾,她的自我是隱匿在社會體系之後的存在。

《天然之美》再現樂生院民身體之美以及藝能者的浪遊行旅

「黃蝶南天舞踏團」的第二支舞作《天然之美》,發表於「樂生療養院」(簡稱「樂生院」)中山堂。1927年,台灣總督府以三年為期,開始在新莊迴龍興建「癩病療養所樂生院」,也正式開啟台灣的癩病防治。1934年以至1945年日治時代結束,透過衛生警察或醫療人員普遍調查、檢疫、監禁癩患,樂生院成為強制隔離以及終生監禁的機構。民國三十四年改名稱為「台灣省立樂生療養院」。事實上,早在1897年的國際痲瘋病會議上,已經確認該病傳染程度極低, 將患者強制驅離的作法是錯誤的,政府所採取的強制隔離,以及對痲瘋病人施予種種不人道的對待, 使得病人的人權淪為國家機器愚民政策下的犧牲品。1995年,原本選在輔大後山營建的捷運新莊線機廠,在地方民代運作下移到樂生院,迫使因為政府錯誤的決策而終身被監禁在樂生舊院區的阿公阿嬤,必須遷離寄託他們生命記憶的所在,再度失去尊嚴與自主權。儘管以「台大城鄉所」為主的建築學者規劃諸多替代方案,倡議原地全區保存樂生院,達成古蹟、捷運、院民與迴龍社區四贏局面,卻未曾為政商既得利益者所採用,造成社運團體、反樂生拆遷的學生、國際人道組織與政府多次衝突;在抗爭未果,復以政府強力的壓制下,截至目前為止,樂生舊院區仍面臨被迫拆遷的危急命運。

《天然之美》原為日本大正年間(1912~1926)廣為流傳的民間歌謠,這是一首由馬戲班子或者街頭賣藝等下層階級的「藝能者」(藝人)所演奏,帶著悲傷調性的曲子,以簡單的詞句歌詠鳥鳴水音,讚嘆大自然的美好。這首歌誕生於日本接受「西洋=近代」洗禮時期――明治維新(1868)。 在日本近代化的過程中,政府爲追求西化而成立演奏西樂的軍樂隊,由荷蘭籍的軍事顧問傳授給軍樂隊,為使日人易於接受,遂將西樂加上簡化的歌詞以便於傳唱。日俄戰爭(1904~1905)結束後,軍樂隊解散,樂手流入民間成為馬戲班成員、街頭藝人,或加入宣傳歌隊從事各種商業演出。因此,《天然之美》作為日本第一次接受西方音階的樂曲,在其流傳至民間的過程中,也象徵日本人隨著近代一起活下來的姿態。

秦Kanoko童年時期就聽過《天然之美》這首歌,對其悲涼的曲調印象深刻。她從2005年起參與台、日合作的帳棚劇《台灣浮士德》、《野草天堂》和樂生療養院「大樹下」演出活動,因而開始接觸樂生院民。爾後,秦Kanoko多次造訪樂生院的阿公阿嬤,得知許多樂生院民不為人知的故事,因而觸發她創作《天然之美》的靈感,以舞踏作為拒斥台北縣政府為興建捷運新莊線而拆除樂生療養院的抗爭活動。因此,2006年,秦Kanoko綜結《天然之美》這首歌存留在她心中的憂傷印記、歌曲流傳過程的蕭索寓意以及台灣樂生院長期被遺忘、受迫害,但卻努力活出屬於自己歷史的漢生病人所展現的美 ,創作《天然之美》這支舞踏作品,將自己的身體讓出來,成為樂生院阿公阿嬤的身體和靈魂進住的所在,死者與生者共存於舞踏塗白的身體裡,喚起被封凍的記憶。有別於社運界要求政府對樂生院民提出賠償的訴求,反之,秦Kanoko的舞踏是為了樂生院的阿公阿嬤,以及已然死於樂生院的院民而舞,為了死者的記憶和歷史所做的「舞鬪」,以藝術表現捍衛樂生,藉由舞踏異質的身體對抗國家機器暴行。

「黃蝶南天舞踏團」的《天然之美》分為〈滴〉、〈音樂盒〉、〈回轉馬〉、〈未生〉、〈鏡子〉、〈孩子〉、〈金魚〉、〈孝女〉、〈五穀豐穰〉、〈嬰靈〉、〈風車〉、〈女郎歌舞伎〉、〈Sitar〉、〈葛葉〉、〈黃蝶南天舞〉等十五段,全作再現樂生院民身體之美以及庶民表演藝人浪遊行旅的生活處境。

觀眾入場,即將開演之前,舞台前方蓋著一片模仿歌舞伎開場前的藍、咖啡、橘三色布幔,伴隨著黑人演唱爵士樂的原始、粗曠歌聲,歌聲情緒亦發高亢。 待歌聲停息,眼前沒入黑暗。蛙鳴蟬聲伴隨著水滴滴落在金屬上的聲音淡入,隱約的光線下,慢慢浮現三個蜷縮的形體,漸漸現出人形——三個近乎赤裸、全身塗白、身上纏縛著蠶絲的人,緩慢地伸展身體,直至拉直了身子頭下腳上地倒吊在半空中。赤裸的人體,身無長物,彷彿剛出生的嬰孩般純淨。倒吊的人體,象徵被反轉(up side down)的歷史,掙扎著想表露真相卻欲言又止,也如同初生的嬰兒,從頭部探出母體,降臨於世。舞台的後方是一片片質感粗糙的鏡子,映現因歲月的流逝而漸形萎縮的記憶,以及死者與生者相異的世界。日本歌舞伎劇作家近松門左衛門所寫的劇作《傾城反魂歌》中,曾描述死者的世界是倒著的世界,因而在《天然之美》中,秦Kanoko也運用倒吊、倒立和倒走的身體,來表現死者的世界。

盲舞者佩綺推著廂形手風琴走進舞台,轉動手把,鼓動了風,奏起了《天然之美》的音樂,樂音縹緲斷續,就像殘缺的歷史和斷裂的記憶,無從綴補,卻又不可磨滅。隨即,佩綺回望舞台以及三位倒吊的女舞者(分別為王榆丹、秦Kanoko、李薇),響起民間浪人吟唱的《天然之美》歌聲,倒吊的繩桿起起落落,彷彿上下移動的兒童樂園旋轉木馬般高低起伏,氛圍寂寥。

〈未生〉一段中,舞者們一方面藉由屈縮和倒立的身體表現初生兒與死者的世界,一方面以抖動的身軀再現漢生病人發病時抽慉痙癵的身體。 「未生」意味著即將出生而尚未出生,介乎死者與生者之間的情狀,舞者身上纏縛著蠶絲,諭示即將破繭而出的蛹。舞者的身體產生「形變」(transformation),像是一只掏空的容器,使得他者的靈魂得以進駐。此段與土方巽 1972年發表,再現痲瘋病人身體的《疱瘡譚》產生文本互文指涉(intertextuality),以衰弱的、疾病的、污穢的這些被近代化所排除的「衰弱體」,徹底顛覆主流社會的審美價值和西方舞蹈所規範的身體形象。童年時期生長於日本東北貧苦農家的土方巽,常被父母裝在名為「飯詰」的竹簍中,置於田埂旁靜候黃昏的到臨,傍晚始可從飯詰中出來透透氣;藏身飯詰中的土方巽,常藉由簍外傳來的風聲鳥鳴,幻想外界的情境,待黃昏被父母從飯詰中抱出來,往往因在簍中蹲屈終日而全身發麻,這樣的身體經驗衍生土方巽日後所建構的舞踏身體美學───舞踏就是努力想起身直立,卻巍巍顫顫無法站起來的屍體。


接著,在日本民俗祭典阿波舞的樂聲中,四位裸身的女舞者推開鏡子從後台進場,表情怪誕。她們頭戴白無垢新娘帽,背脊的一道紅線銘刻著刺青一般無法褪去的身體記憶。模糊的鏡子,是界乎死者與生者之間的一扇門。三位舞者退場後,只留下秦Kanoko一人留在舞台上,伴隨著日本知名西塔琴(Sitar)演奏家井上憲司的現場即興演奏。舞台向後拉開,露出一汪水潭,和陳列在兩旁一罐罐的金魚——為了避免漢生病對孩子造成影響,日治時代有很長一段時間,政府禁止療養院中的男女交往,後來才取消禁令;而有些女性漢生病人,懷了身孕,卻被迫引胎流產,胎兒或是出生就死亡的嬰孩就被浸泡在裝著福馬林藥水的玻璃瓶裡。在這個名為〈孩子〉的段落中,水象徵死亡,以及萬物從死亡之中再生的意象。瓶子裡的金魚,則是尚未出生就被迫死亡的胎兒、渴望出生的嬰靈。此刻,秦Kanoko化身為母狐狸「葛葉」。日本民間有一則傳說:男子安倍保名邂逅變身為少女的母狐狸葛葉,兩人因相愛而結褵生下孩子安倍晴明;孩子五歲時,某日葛葉為家院中的菊花香所吸引,因而心神恍惚回復成狐狸的樣貌,恰巧保名回家見此狀,驚嚇不已,葛葉只得留下夫婿與愛子,逃回森林。這個故事宛如樂生院阿嬤的寫照——許多阿嬤年輕時生下孩子,發病後卻被迫與孩子和親人隔離,徒留無限思念與憤恨。所有漢生病人被拘禁在樂生療養院的第一天,院方會要求病人褪盡衣物,進入消毒室沖澡,之後再換上樂生院為他們準備的制服,換上這身制服,就代表再也出不了樂生;在此,裸身浸泡在水池中的秦Kanoko,穿上白衣,進入樂生。

盲舞者佩綺化為紅色的金魚,坐在水盆裡游泳嬉戲。接著,在歌手伍佰演唱的那卡西歌曲中,旋轉舞台轉動,一位跳艷舞的女子倚著鋼管出場。全身塗白的鋼管舞女李薇,神色茫然,使我不禁聯想起日前因政府廢公娼而失業,終至投海自盡的前公娼「官姐」,她的死亡,著實是對政府歧視性工作者、剝削弱勢族群所提出的控訴。另一方面,這段鋼管舞,也隱喻舞踏發展初期,許多舞踏手在夜總會裡表演艷舞或金粉秀以換取金錢,這不僅只是為了謀生,更是舞踏手刻意自我賤民化所做的選擇。這段鋼管舞,如同編舞家林懷民舞作《我的鄉愁我的歌》(1986)中,面無表情地掀起裙襬露出內褲的妓女,向眾人展現最私密的部位,最卑微的自身,令我炫然欲泣。

送葬的歌曲響起,四位黑衣人檯著平躺在桌子上的死者秦Kanoko從花道進場。據樂生院的阿公阿嬤口述,台灣光復前後,由於物資缺乏,許多漢生病人過世之後,院方無法為死者準備棺木,就把屍體放在桌子上直接焚燒。舞段中,獨留在舞台上的死者悄然甦醒,褪去樂生院的制服,跳著豔舞,燃起火焰,宛如亡者在熊熊烈火中矗然起身的屍體,在火舞中手持佛印,究竟涅盤。

盲舞者佩綺再度進場,此時,她化身嬰靈之王,背著孩童的玩具和其他的嬰兒,緩緩踱越舞台。在吉他演奏的《天然之美》樂音中,舞台上空餘上百只風車,為無形的風所吹拂著,彷彿嬰靈正置身其間戲耍,除非開啟心靈之眼,否則,人的肉眼無法看見他們的存在。蒼茫空曠的舞台,彷如捲軸上留白的畫面,泛起動人的詩意。

接著,三位歌舞伎女郎從花道進場。花道的功用,在於讓戲劇性的時間停駐於此,也意味著不同次元時空的過渡場域。這三位女郎呼應歌舞伎始祖神女出雲阿國的傳說,以戲擬的手法表現常民逸趣。

在西塔琴的獨奏之後,舞作進入最後的高潮。在名為〈葛葉〉的這段舞蹈中,秦Kanoko化身狐狸母親,時而悲憤,時而恍惚,時而癡狂,時而愁苦。井上憲司即興演奏的西塔琴,緊扣秦Kanoko的情緒轉換,終至迷幻而狂亂。秦Kanoko仿效歌舞伎舞者在舞台上快速換裝,近乎瘋狂的情緒張力讓人難以逼視卻又無從遁逃。接著,秦Kanoko褪去衣衫,露出她餵哺幼兒的乳房,偋棄自我,以全然的「無」(裸體)面對世界;秦Kanoko女性性徵明顯的身體,已然跳脫舞踏視身體為「物」的概念,並超越舞踏的父權體系,展現她特有的女性身體經驗,這正是秦Kanoko的舞踏與眾不同之處。最後,秦Kanoko以毛筆在鏡面上振筆疾書,寫下:「恋しくば、尋ね來て見よ、新莊の樂生の森の、恨け葛の葉。(想念我,請找到新莊樂生這片森林來,恨的葛葉。)」 被迫與愛子分離,痛不欲生的葛葉捧起缸裡象徵胎兒的金魚,跳入水池,浸淋在消毒藥水下狂亂起舞, 無比癲狂,無比痛楚。

後殖民主義理論大師薩依德(Edward W. Said, 1935〜2003)1993年應英國廣播公司邀請發表系列演講時曾指出:「真正的知識份子若要像真正的流亡者那樣具有邊緣性、不被馴化,就要有不同於尋常的回應:回應的對象是旅人過客,而不是有權有勢者;是暫時的、有風險的事,而不是習以為常的事;是創新、實驗,而不是以威權方式所賦予的現狀。」 儘管秦Kanoko拒絕以知識份子自居,然而,引喻連連的《天然之美》,在在顯現秦Kanoko心繫弱勢族群、追求邊緣性的終極關懷。


在陰暗角落裡隱現靈光的珍珠

1970年代末期,羅馬尼亞裔的美籍文學評論家╱學者Matei Calinescu在《現代性的五種面貌》一書中,詳實論述「現代性」概念的起源與流變。 他指出,歷史的發展不是線性的,「進步」的概念是呈螺旋狀不斷向上迴旋攀升。文藝復興時期,人文復甦,人開始有意識地去參與未來的創作,要與時俱進,而不是對抗時間,人成為改變我們所身處的變動世界的促因。浪漫主義以降的文學與藝術,強調惡也是人性的一部份,不能只歌頌善而對惡存而不論,無論善與惡,皆與人的自由意志有關。歷史對於前衛藝術的肯定,不在於當下,而在於未來。舞踏超越了動作體系,使身體成為哲學論證的場域,以及意識形態和人道關懷的載體。


Matei Calinescu認為現代性分為兩種,其一為「布爾喬亞的現代性」,延續文藝復興以來的進步概念,相信科學、理性、技術,追求成功、卓越。另一種「審美的現代性」則是促成前衛藝術產生的現代性,這種現代性拒斥布爾喬亞式的現代性,反之,他們主張叛逆、無政府、自我放逐、肯定激情、為藝術而藝術,此一派以波特萊爾為代表人物。對日本的前衛藝術家而言,modern意味著「反現代」、「反西化」,蘊藏於此概念中的精神內涵,實與「審美的現代性」不相悖離。現代主義本質上就是對現代性的尋求,現代性意味著一種「反傳統的傳統」,現代主義否定其自身。王墨林指出:「研究一九六○到八○年代在不同世代之間,對於『現代』所各自抱持的批判與立場,會是比研究『白虎社』(舞踏)到底是屬於哪種意識型態的現代藝術,還要來的更為有意思吧!」

日本藝術家工藤哲美(Kudo Tetsumi)曾說過:「對我而言,藝術是為了徹底質疑萬事萬物。為了質疑上帝,為了質疑我自己,為了質疑世界。種種質疑積累而成我的藝術。極度的質疑,就是我的起點。」 秦Kanoko亦如是道:「我之所以跳舞踏,是為了反抗世界。」

歷經五十多年的發展,日本舞踏已從原先被日本政府打壓的地下劇場活動,晉升為日本外務省不斷透過文化外交途徑傾銷他國,藉以代表日本當代藝術的表演,並在世界各國備受矚目。但多元發展的結果,許多自稱為舞踏的團體,舞姿漸形美化,早已脫離舞踏原初的美學思考和運動概念。秦Kanoko謹守她與土方巽以及舞踏源頭的關係,堅持藉由舞踏從事左翼的文化抵抗。《天然之美》為秦Kanoko與「黃蝶南天舞踏團」獨立製作,不申請任何政府、相關基金會補助,由秦Kanoko獨立負責製作經費,而製作群所有工作人員皆為不支薪參與這次演出,所有場次都在樂生療養院展演。秦Kanoko堅持舞踏的邊緣性,不願被主流收編。

「巴洛克」(Baroque)一字,源自於西班牙語和葡萄牙語的barroco,意為「有瑕疵的珍珠」;作為形容詞,此字則有「俗麗凌亂」之意。秦Kanoko自詡為「亞細亞巴洛克」,這顆扭曲、豔俗、怪誕而美麗的珍珠,抱擁著造成她內在劇痛的沙粒或異物,涵養出珠身神秘詭譎的光芒,在資本主義社會最邊緣的陰暗角落,隱現一抹照見歷史記憶的幽暗靈光。

From "Legacy" to "Portrait of the Families"—————On Choreographer LIN Hwai-min’s Self-identity

Motif


"Portrait of the Families" was created by choreographer LIN Hwai-min(林懷民)and premiered in 1997 by the Cloud Gate Dance Theatre of Taiwan. This 100-minute work of the last 100 tumultuous years of Taiwanese history from the point of view of the family, incorporating abstract dance, modern slide projection, and the recorded voices of Taiwanese telling their life stories in a variety of regional dialects. I was deeply touched by this master piece because LIN Hwai-min told the story of my mother land by means of dance art. To me, Portrait of the Families is not only a work of art but also a mirror to reflect my self-identity. However, compared with Legacy (1978), Portrait of the Families is the turning point of LIN Hwai-min’s self-identity from China complex to Taiwan identity. Basically I agree with LIN Hwai-min’s opinion. My study attempts to analyze the text of Portrait of the Families and focuses on the dialectical process of the alteration of LIN Hwai-min’s self-identity.


History of Taiwan

Owing to its special location and complex history, culture of Taiwan is unique. Taiwan island also known as Formosa (from the Portuguese means "beautiful island"), is located in East Asia off the coast of mainland China, southwest of the main islands of Japan but directly west of the end of Japan's Ryukyu Islands, and north-northwest of the Philippines. It is bound to the east by the Pacific Ocean, to the south by the South China Sea and the Luzon Strait, to the west by the Taiwan Strait and to the north by the East China Sea. Since ancient China times, Taiwan appears its military importance because of its location.

About four thousand years ago, ancestors of Taiwanese aborigines settled in Taiwan. These aborigines are related to Malay and Polynesians. Han Chinese of ancient China might have known of the existence of the main island of Taiwan since the Three Kingdoms period (third century, 230 A.D.). In 1544, a Portuguese ship sighted the main island of Taiwan and dubbed it "Ilha Formosa", which means "Beautiful Island." In 1624, the Dutch established a commercial base on Taiwan and began to import workers from Fujian and Penghu as laborers, many of whom settled. The Dutch made Taiwan a colony with its colonial capital at Anping, Tainan.

Since 1662, troop forces from Sothern Fujian led by ZHENG Cheng-gong(鄭成功)and his family defeated the Dutch for recovering Ming Dynasty of China. In 1683, armies led by Admiral Shi Lang of the Ch’ing Dynasty formally annexed Taiwan, placing Taiwan island under the jurisdiction of Fujian province. During this time, Chinese immigrants mostly from Southern Fujian (so-called Min-nan) continued to enter Taiwan. Unfortunately, there were lots of conflicts between Chinese from different regions of Southern Fujian, and between Southern Fujian Chinese and aborigines.

In the First Sino-Japanese War (1894–95), Japan defeated Ch’ing China. Therefore, Ch’ing government ceded Taiwan to Japan in the Treaty of Shimonoseki. Japanese forces entered the capital at Tainan and on October 21, 1895. Taiwan became the colonization of Japan formally. Japanese government paid much attention to development of Taiwan. They extended the railroads and other transportation networks, built an extensive sanitation system and revised the public school system. Meanwhile, the ethnic Chinese and Taiwanese aborigines were classified as second- and third-class citizens. Many intellectuals delivered anti-Japanese movement. Japan's rule of Taiwan ended when it lost World War II and signed the Instrument of Surrender of Japan on August 15, 1945.

On October 25, 1945, Republic of China troops representing the Allied Command accepted the formal surrender of Japanese military forces in Taihoku. The ROC administration, led by Chiang Kai-shek, announced that date as "Taiwan Restoration Day". In 1947, the 228 Massacre was an uprising in Taiwan that began on February 28, 1947 and was suppressed by the Kuomintang (KMT) government, resulting in between ten thousand and twenty thousand civilians killed. This brought Taiwan the reign of White Terror. In 1949, on losing the Chinese Civil War to the Communist Party of China (CPC), the Kuomintang (KMT) , led by Chiang Kai-shek(蔣介石), retreated from Mainland China and moved the ROC government to Taipei. From then on, Taiwan was under the Martial Law. In 1986, the Democratic Progressive Party (DPP) was formed illegally and inaugurated as the first opposition party in Taiwan to counter the KMT. A year later, President Chiang Ching-kuo(蔣經國), son of Chiang Kai-shek lifted martial law. In 2000, DPP became government for favoring an eventual and official declaration of Taiwan independence.

Still now, two kinds of ideology keep in Taiwan people’s mind. The point is Taiwan belongs to China or not. Most people believe Taiwan is independent but some people regard Taiwan as part of China. Taiwan lives under the minacity of China. International society assists in Taiwan independence but it is afraid of China government. Taiwan is usually called “Chinese Taipei” in international competitions. The current situation of Taiwan is as complex as its history.


Biography of choreographer Lin Hwai-min

Lin Hwai-min was born in Chia-yi in 1947. 9 days later, the 228 Massacre(二二八)happened. As a grand-grandson of Lin Wei-chiao, a scholar of Ch’ing Dynasty, tradition of his family education is very austerely. His ancestors immigrated from Longshi, Zongjo of Fujien Province to Taiwan in middle 19 century as “native Taiwanese”. His father LIN Gin-sheng(林金生)and his mother ZHENG Pien-pien(鄭翩翩)both studied abroad in Japan and high-educated. His father was a high official of KMT government. Since Lin Hwai-min’s childhood, he was educated to be a man of duty.

When Lin Hwai-min was 5 years old and a half, he saw a ballet movie "The Red Shoes"(紅菱豔) and was exactly fascinated by dancing. Ten years later, Jose Limon Dance Company came to Taiwan, junior-high-school-student Lin Hwai-min attended their performance Moor’s Pavane. He was hooked to the performance. “How attractive it is! I want to be a dancer someday.” Lin Hwai-min said a prayer. In the same period, 14-year-old Lin Hwai-min appeared his first novel. As an excellent novelist, Lin Hwai-min wrote several fictions about anxious young generations such as Homecoming and Cicada. After finishing his school life from News Department of Cheng-chi University(政治大學), Lin Hwai-min went to the United States for further study. At the same time, he attended Martha Graham dance school and appeared his talent of choreography. Because of multicultural influence of the United States, Lin Hwai-min thought over his homeland and his identity.

With his master degree of art from Iowa University, Lin Hwai-min came back to Taiwan and taught modern dance in Culture College. In 1973, Lin Hwai-min led four of his female students and found “Cloud Gate Dance Theatre”, the first modern dance company of Taiwan. “Cloud Gate” is in pursuit of “Chinese dance for Chinese.” Lin Hwai-min is engaged in Chinese modern dance. He created new vocabulary of dance by combining traditional Chinese dance training, Peking opera skills and Martha Graham technique. In the latest decade, Lin Hwai-min trained his dancers by meditation, martial arts and Ta-chi Tao Yin. Besides, there is a series of pieces which refers to Taiwan history/society and political situation/event including "Legacy"(薪傳,1978), "Dreamscape"(夢土,1986), "My Nostalgia, My Songs"(我的鄉愁我的歌,1986), "Requiem"(輓歌,1989), "Symphony for Sorrowful Songs"(悲歌交響曲,1995), "Portraits of the Families"(家族合唱,1997), and "The Road to the Mountain——Chen Ying-zhen’s Landscapes"(山路——陳映真風景,2004). In "Legacy", "Dreamscape", "My Nostalgia, My Songs" and "Portraits of the Families", I read some information about Lin Hwai-min’s national/self-identity changed from China Complex to Taiwan identity.


From “Legacy” to “Portrait of the Families”

"Legacy" is Lin Hwai-min’s first theatrical work with the history of Taiwan. At that time of his choreography, Taiwan was under Martial Law(戒嚴). In order to honor the pioneers of Taiwan, Lin Hwai-min trained dancers outdoor by the side of seashore to carry big rocks for them to experience the dangerous and hard life of our ancestors. By pure coincidence, "Legacy" premiered on the day the United States president Jimmy Carter announced the breakup with Taiwan and the establishment of diplomatic relationship with the People’s Republic of China. People in Taiwan felt betrayed. The premiere in Lin Hwai-min’s hometown Chia-yi (嘉義)became a highly emotional event: 6ooo audience cheered, cried, and strove along with the dancers when the “pioneers” struggling to cross the “Black Water”——the Taiwan Straits which separates Taiwan from China. Dancers put on traditional Hakka blue costume(客家藍衫) and led by a leader to perform the cohesiveness of the group. They delivered extremely strong energy to present confirmed willpower. Pioneers got together as one indivisible community. They came from China and settle down in Taiwan. In the final section of Legacy, happy colored ribbon dance and lion dance celebrated brand new life of Taiwan people.

In "Dreamscape", Lin Hwai-min spoke out his inner secret about China myth. There was a layer of gauze between dancers and audience. Time and space on this stage was interlaced. Peacocks strutted on the stage. Ancient Chinese people and modern people appeared by turns. Everything was as vague as a dream and a montage movie. Finally the layer of gauze was risen up to show every thing clearly. It seemed to wake everybody up from the China dream. Lin Hwai-min used the method of collage and post-modernism to parody the actuality of Taiwan. In this metaphor, China is a dream never comes true.

Inspiration of "My Nostalgia, My Songs" is a photo of several Taiwanese puppy drama players. They went to seaside in Tong-shau to have fun. Sculpture artist CHU-ming(朱銘)took the photo for them in late 1950s. Lin Hwai-min followed photographer CHANG Chao-tan’s(張照堂)suggestion, he chose many Taiwan folk songs and popular songs of 1960s to echo memory of his youth time. Most of the songs were in Min-nan(閩南語), Lin Hwai-min’s mother tongue. Some of these songs were adapted from Japanese songs. These Japanese style songs are nostalgia of Lin Hwai-min’s Japanese-educated parents as well as collect memory of thousands of Taiwan old people who have ever experienced Japanese colonization period since 1895 to 1945. "My Nostalgia, My Songs" represented Taiwan society in the beginning of Taiwan Restoration. Young people were naïve but sometimes anxious. No one knows the capitalism will lead Taiwan to which place. Young men jumped up as free as happy birds. Prostitutes appeared their flesh without emotional expression. A lady in white wondered like a solitary phantom among young people. Light sweetness and hazy sorrow met on the stage.

"Portrait of the Families" was created in 1997, the same year when Hong Kong was returned to the Chinese government. It was also 50 years after the 228 Massacre of Taiwanese resistance by the national Chinese Troops and 10years after the abolishment of 38 years of Martial Law on Taiwan. Apart from these political and historical implications there is also the personal side of the choreographer. Lin Hwai-min had discovered on old photos that his family was almost completely dressed in Japanese kimonos. It was then he realized what had been concealed for 50 years. At what time was which identity opportune? For half a century until the end of World War Ⅱ the Taiwanese people had to be Japanese. Then they became forcefully united Chinese. How does Red China justify its claim on Taiwan since Taiwan has part of the Mainland for more than 100 years? What is Taiwan? What is this island and its people now after it has served its time as an American bastion against communism? What are the cultural characteristics? How to live with pain——the real pain and the phantom pain of loss? Answers are not fixed and belong to everyone.


On “Portrait of the Families” and Lin Hwai-min’s identity

"Portrait of the Families" started from a lion dance. It reminded audience of the end of "Legacy". The same lion with long red cloth was metaphor of China blood and chain. It seemed the lion would like to escape from this red chain. Hundreds of historical photos made as slide projection and the recorded voices of Taiwanese telling their life stories after lion dance. People spoke in Aborigines, Hakka, Hoklo and Mandarin. Much movement of dancers was like their daily life——teeth brushing, having bath, face and hair washing, and walking. Some people attempted to say something but gave up. The atmosphere of White Terror existed everywhere. Keep washing was the atmosphere to wash away terror and uneasy feeling.

"Portrait of the Families" brings to light the old wounds and joins in requiem, makes up for forbidden mourning. Since every spectator has his own pictures many of the projection screens which are repeatedly shown on the stage are kept empty. In 29 interviews the voices tell about tragedy of Taiwan history, about murders and escapes, about arbitrary imprisonment and unfounded treason charges and executions.

In the end of "Portrait of the Families", a shaman and rites of Taiwanese tradition religion appeared. Vocal of Nan-quan drama(南管) faded in. Finally, water lamps flew through the stage. Most of these rites are for comforting dead spirit. The one only water lamp left on the stage which ended up the tragedy of Taiwan history. Everyone in Taiwan has to forgive violence in order to acquire redemption.

“Taiwan is a woman.” Lin Hwai-min said. In "Portrait of the Families", a bride in old style red wedding dress, red headscarf and “3 inches shoes” was chain in a thin red line. She did her best to escape but failed. Later, another young woman was compelled by several strong men to sit on a traditional arm chair. These men dressed her up in a suit of clothes of rich Han women. Red peony flowers were put in her arms. The young woman got mad. She tore off petals one by one and bit the peony flower. Suddenly, she fell unconscious on the arm chair.

In my opinion, both of the bride and the woman were symbols of Taiwan. None of them has freedom and power to reject the hard-bitten control of fatherhood and men. Their predicament was just like history of Taiwan. Since 1624 the Dutch governed Taiwan until 20 Century, each regime controlled Taiwan as men controlled women in old epoch.

Later on, solo of a woman in black seemed as widow dance. Many fathers, husbands and sons disappear after 228 Massacre. This isolated woman is another allegory about Taiwan.

"Portrait of the Families" as a work of dance theatre, it presents different faces of post-colonial Taiwan by means of dance performance. From "Legacy" to "Portrait of the Families", Lin Hwai-min expresses his Taiwan discourse by the schema of body. Benedict Anderson’s notion of imagined community expressed, “Nationalism involves imagining one’s membership in the intangible idea of a nation.” In the very beginning, “one China” concept was drive in every Taiwan people’s idea by totalitarian, Chiang Kai-shek government. Each dialect was forbidden and only mandarin allowed. 228 Massacre and White Terror ceased all of voice against government. As time went by, social and political situation of Taiwan changed gradually. As a growing organism, Lin Hwai-min’s political ideology and self-identity changed with times. I appreciate his courage to show his inner truth.

In 1978, "Legacy" reminded Taiwan people not to forget Chinese root under Lin Hwai-min’s “big China complex”. In 1986, "Dreamscape" queried his China dream, and "My Nostalgia, My Songs" recalled his romantic youth as a Min-nan speaker.

In 1997, "Portrait of the Families" as a great epic presented in dance theatre, Lin Hwai-min spoke out his self-identity loudly by means of the last recorded voice of a middle-aged female Mainlander. She told a story of his father, an old man evacuated from China to Taiwan with army after 1945. The lady with her tender mandarin said, “When my father was in his age of 91, I took him home in mainland China. Since his latest time to go home, 59 years passed by. We walked to my grand-parents graves beside field, my father happened to say,〝How about let’s go home?〞〝Home? Where is our home?〞I asked him on purpose. 〝Home? Our home is in Ping-dun.(屏東)〞 This man who never forgot his hometown regarded Ping-dun as his real home actually. After coming back to Taiwan, my father was peaceful and confirmedly. Finally I happen to understand, Taiwan is just where he wants to bury his body after death.”


Conclusion

Before choreographed "Portrait of the Families", Lin Hwai-min used to regard bloody 228 Massacre as “a phone call far away from the ocean”, because it kept ringing but nobody dared to get the phone call. But "Portrait of the Families" broke this taboo. Lin Hawi-min decided to face to the tragedy of Taiwan and his self-identity. He answered the phone call bravely.

"Portrait of the Families" is a requiem of bitter Taiwan history. We cannot forget history but we may forgive mistakes as if sky lights carry hopes to heaven and water lamps release souls from purgatory.

The Yellow Butterfly Flying to the South-----------Japanese Female Dancer-choreographer Hata-Kanoko, Her Work "Beauty of Nature" and the First Butoh Company in Taiwan

The research motif


The first time I saw Japanese Butoh performance was in 1994. It was "Unetsu"(卵熱) of "Sankai Juku"(山海塾) performed at the National Theatre, Taipei. I was deeply shocked and touched. It was hard to express the emotion I experienced, but I knew there must be a special philosophy and aesthetics behind Butoh(舞踏). After that, I saw many Butoh performances, among them, the works by Kazuo Ohno(大野一雄)and his son Yoshito Ohno(大野慶人), Eiko & Koma(永子與高麗), "Dairakudakan"大駱駝艦, "Arutai Kobuzoku"(阿爾泰古舞族). In the summer of 2005, I participated in Semimaru Workshop of Sankai Juku in Japan. Then in the spring of 2006, I attended "Tomoe Shizune and Hakutobo"(白桃房) Workshop in Taiwan.


Among many Butoh artists, there is a special Butoh dancer- choreographer named Hata-Kanoko(秦Kanoko) who has special experience with Taiwan. In 1998, she was invited to the Philippines to perform in the “Cry of Asia Festival.” In the Philippines, she saw suffering life of people who lived in Smokey Mountain. Besides, she met and made friends with a Taiwan epic-theatre worker Mr. CHUNG Chiao(鍾喬). Mr. Chung Chiao is a poet and the artistic director of the “Assignment Theatre”(差事劇團) in Taiwan. With the help from Mr. Chung, Hata-Kanoko came to Taiwan and has performed and organized Butoh workshops since 1998. In 2002, Hata Kanoko and her family lived in Shen-keng(深坑), Taipei County. They become regular visitors of Taiwan. Hata-Kanoko keeps her performances as well as Butoh workshop in Taiwan. In 2005, Hata-Kanoko established the first Butoh company in Taiwan――“Huang Tieh Nan Tien”(黃蝶南天), which means “The Yellow Butterfly Flying to the South”. She then choreographed her first work for the company――''Shun Chien Chih Wong''(King of the Moment,瞬間之王). Hata- Kanoko lives in Taiwan as their second home and dances Butoh in Taiwan in order to search for the speciality inside of Taiwanese people’s body.

In 2006, Hata-Kanoko choreographed her latest work “Tieh Jan Chih Mei”(Beauty of Nature,天然之美)and performed in “Losheng Sanatorium”(樂生療養院) since September 21 to 24. Losheng is a kind of hospital and community to isolate leprosy patients since the Japanese colonization era until this century. As a 4th generation Butoh dancer who admires Butoh founder Tatsumi Hijikata(土方巽) , Hata -Kanoko’s Butoh is based on Hijikata’s enlightment and she keeps her long association with Hijikata’s aesthetics. "Beauty of Nature" was inspired by her early study and continuous observation of Hijikata’s work. Besides, she insisted to have "Beauty of Nature" performed in Losheng in order to protest against Losheng’s dismantling by Taiwan government.


My research attempts to find the possibility of Butoh in Taiwan. I’ll explore anti-modernity and anti-westernized tendency and the representation of female body experience instead of feminism in the creations of Hata-Kanoko, a mother of three little girls.


Hata Kanoko, Japanese Butoh and Taiwan

Hata-Kanoko was born in the northern top of Japan in 1964. Her hometown is very close to Tatsumi Hijikata’s and Kazuo Ohno’s hometowns. Before 1984, she attended a 2-year Women’s Senior College and majored in insurance. From 1984 to 1988, she became an office lady working as a secretary. Besides, she worked in a mini movie theatre to play movies for audience. In 1984, she saw a solo performance of Min Tanaka (田中泯). That time, Min Tanaka called his dance “hyper-dance” instead of Butoh. In this performance, Min Tanaka was almost naked. He provoked his audience by pouring Japanese sake wine on them. Hata-Kanoko was very moved by the performance of Min Tanaka. This was her first time to see live Butoh performance.


In 1987, Hata Kanoko started her Butoh study in “Arutai Kobuzoku Butoh Company”. Her teacher’s teacher was Hijikata’s student. Hata-Kanoko quitted her job as an office lady in 1988. From then on, Hata-Kanoko lives her life as a professional Butoh dancer. Sometimes, she danced golden powder show in night club to make money.

In 1998, Hata-Kanoko was invited by “Asia Council for People’s Culture” in the Philippines to perform in the “Cry of Asia Festival”. In the Philippines, she saw very difficult life of people who lived in Smokey Mountain. Smokey Mountain is an area for storing trash. Crowded trash produces smoke. That’s why it is called “Smokey Mountain”. Some poor Philippines live in Smoky Mountain and earn very little money by picking up and selling useful trash such as recycled cans. Life is very hard for those people. It’s almost like living in hell. But in Smokey Mountain, she said, “I saw Butoh on the street. Because the existence of those Philippines is the shape of Butoh. They always struggle for life. Their life is a reality full of pain. Even children who beg for money on the street are victims of Capitalism. To me, Butoh is the shape of life.”


In this festival, Hata Kanoko met Mr. Chung Chiao, the founder and director of the “Assignment Theatre” in Taiwan. Mr. Chung is a leftist intellectual. Since Hata Kanoko’s social movement ideas are very similar to Chung Chiao’s, Chung invited Hata to come to his homeland Taiwan for Hata’s first tour in 1998.


Before the end of World War Two, Taiwan was occupied and colonized by Japan for 50 years. Taiwan and Japan both belong to Buddhist and Confucian cultural circle. Because of these historical and cultural relationships, Hata-Kanoko feels very close to Taiwan people. Taiwanese friends who work in alternative theatre are also fond of her very much because she is a woman full of energy and sympathy. From 1998, Hata-Kanoko came to Taiwan to perform and conduct Butoh workshops several times. Hata-Kanoko and her family have lived in Shen-keng, Taipei County since 2002. She learned to speak Chinese language and became a regular visitor and observer of Taiwan.


In January 2005, Hata-Kanoko established the first Butoh company in Taiwan――“Huang Dieh Nan Tien” which means “The Yellow Butterfly Flying to the South”. She regards herself as a yellow butterfly who makes her decision to cross the strait to fly to the south, from Japan to Taiwan. In her opinion, Taiwan, Japan, Korea and China surround and share the same China Sea. The China Sea is the complicated connection between Taiwan, Japan, Korea and China.

In the first work of "Huang Tieh Nan Tien Butoh Company"――"Shun Chien Chih Wong"(King of the Moment) , Hata-Kanoko cooperated with a blind and fat dancer Lee Pei-chi(李佩綺). To Hata-Kanoko, Miss Lee is a symbol of people who live on the margin of the society. No matter how hard she works and struggles, she will never enter a higher social level. Miss Lee’s body is a “weapon” against Capitalism in "Shun Chien Chih Wong". Her body belongs to the public. She is the existence which is hidden behind the society.


Hata Kanoko’s Latest Work


“Tieh Jan Chih Mei”(Beauty of Nature)


In 2006, from September 21 to 24, Hata-Kanoko choreographed her latest work "Tieh Jan Chih Mei"  (Beauty of Nature)for old grandpas and grandmas who are isolated in Losheng Leprosy Sanatorium by the colonial Japanese and later Taiwanese governments. Before 1960’s, leprosy was misunderstood as terrible infectious disease. Those who got leprosy were forced by government into segregation in rest home. This kind of rest home is named “Ai-sheng Yuan”(愛生院) in Japan. In Taiwan, it’s called “Losheng Yuan” (樂生院)since Japanese colonization era. Leprosy patients had to keep their distance far away from their family, friends and people until their death. At the end of the 20th century, research on medical science proved that leprosy is not infectious disease. Even close contact between lovers will not endanger the healthy partner. Those patients were cheated by their government. They spent their whole live in vain in Losheng. Some social movement and student movement groups showed up to support old grandpas and grandmas in Losheng. They asked for apology and reparation from both Japanese and Taiwanese governments. Unfortunately, Taipei County government sold the land of Losheng Leprosy Rest Home to the Taipei Metro company in 2002. Hence, the government forced those old grandpas and grandmas to move away. Some of them agreed to leave, but some refused. Because of the wrong policy of the government, their human rights were sacrificed. What they need is only dignity. Therefore, many sociology scholars, students, artists and people retort and argue against the government to prevent Losheng from being moved away. This is not a problem of how many leprosy grandpas and grandmas who want to stay in Losheng. This is a problem of essential meaning. Our nation and government owe these grandpas and grandmas who spend their life without humanism and humanity in vain inside of Losheng.


Hata-Kanoko joined this movement by means of her work "Beauty of Nature". Actually, "Beauty of Nature" is the name of a Japanese song. This song is the first song introduced from the west to Japan. In the end of 19th century, a military officer brought this song from Holland to the Japanese Army. Then it was transformed into a Japanese song played by military bands. As some of the military bands were dismissed, some musicians joined circus to perform for ordinary people. It was a process of sadness. The tune of this song is also filled with sadness. Hata-Kanoko heard the song "Beauty of Nature" in her childhood. The lyric of this song is very simple. Singer admired songs of birds, voice of rivers and beauty of nature with simple vocabularies. However, every time Hata-Kanoko heard this song, she felt sad because its tune is full of sorrow. In 2006, Hata-Kanoko combined the sorrowful images left in her heart by this song, the progression from the army to common folks of this song as well as the event of Losheng. She choreographed her dance work "Beauty of Nature" to fight for anti-modernity concept of Butoh. She didn’t apply for any grants from the government, organization or business enterprise sponsors. She paid for every cent of the production herself. Everyone worked with Hata-Kanoko also received no salary. Even costume designer, sitar musician, lighingt designer and stage technician from Japan bought their own airplane tickets themselves. Everybody shared with the same ideology and friendship.


In the very beginning of "Beauty of Nature", three female dancers are hanging high above the stage under very dark light. They are almost naked and white color spreads on their body. A few streaks of silkworm thread are placed on their bodies. They look like silkworms wanting to get out of their cocoons. Voice of water drops falling on metal cans and sound of insects continue. The dancers move slowly. Gradually, they stretch their bodies upside down. The “upside-down” body symbolizes the history which is reversed by the hegemony of the government. And then, the blind girl appears. She winds a music box. However, the music sounds broken. To me, it is a metaphor of broken history and forgotten memory. The blind dancer exits. Three dancers hang above and move up and down, up and down. Their motion looks like turning toy horses in merry-go-round in an amusement park for children. The background music as well as sound from the blind dancer’s music box is the song "Beauty of Nature".


Light turns dark. Live sitar music comes. Three dancers lie down on the stage. They are like babies unborn in mothers’ wombs. But they are also dead people who hope to come to next life and be born again. When they shake their bodies slowly, some Losheng old grand-pas and grand-mas say it reminds them of their leprosy disease. They used to be seized by spasms or cramps. In the end of this section, dancers stand upside down to represent the world of the dead. Because in a script of kabuki, the world of dead people is described as being upside down.


Light fades out. Solo performance of Sitar musician starts. Light fades in. Dancers gradually show up from the back of a mirror to Japanese ritual music. They make ugly and absurd faces. The mirror is very vague because it is a door to connect the lived and the dead.

And then it’s Hata-Kanoko’s solo dance. The stage opens and a pool with water appers. On the first day leprosy patients entered Losheng, everyone was put in the shower of antiseptic solution and then put on clothes Losheng prepared for them as uniforms. It meant they would never go out of Losheng again.


Blind dancer becomes a golden fish. She is playing and swimming in the water. The stage rotates to reveal a back stage, where a show girl dances her sexy dance. However, her dance makes audience feel sad because she represents life of girls in the underworld of our society those who use their bodies to make money.


With the music "My Sweet Home", four men in black carry a table and Hata-Kanoko lies on the table as the dead. They pass the audience and go to the stage. Hata-Kanoko stays on the stage alone. She wakes up, takes off her Losheng uniform, shows her bikini and dances with fire. Just like dead leprosy patients’ bodies burnt in fire. Finally, she became Buddha.


The blind dancer, as the leader of the spirits of dead children, carries toys and dead babies past the stage. Children’s toy windmills turn rapidly, but the stage is empty because all children have disappeared.


The next section also showed up in Hijikata’s work "Story of Disease"(疱瘡譚) before. It is about a story of prostitutes. They carry their bags in front of kimonos and this is opposite to ordinary girls.


After sitar solo, Hata-Kanoko uses a legend to tell the story of Losheng. A man unknowingly married a fox. Their marriage was happy and the wife gave birth to a baby boy. Finally, the fox had to go back to her forest. She cried and told her son, “If you miss me, please come to my forest near Osaka.” Some grand-mas in Losheng were forced to leave their children in the similar situation. Hata-Kanoko danced her long solo of fox dance. The sitar music expresses her feeling. Finally, she wrote on the mirror, “If you miss me, please come to my forest near Losheng” .


Conclusion

"Beauty of Nature" is a successful writing said to be feminine (écriture féminine). Hata-Kanoko never admits she is a feminist but her work echoes the approach of radical feminism.  She knows the value of her own work. She insists on left-wing cultural resistance by means of her Butoh.


Ranajit Guha, the Indian post-colonialist scholar defined “subaltern studies” as “listening to the small voice of history”. Dr. Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak also asked, “Can Subaltern Speak? Suffering of Losheng’s old grandpas and grandmas can not be forgotten. Hata-Kanoko and her work "Beauty of Nature" expressed the sublimation of misery.

Maro Akaji, the founder and artistic director of Dairakudakan used to said, “Butoh draws its energy from the earth. It comes out of specific Japanese culture, and out of a Japanese avant-garde.” Unlike some later Butoh generations, Hata-Kanoko still keeps her connection with Hijikata. She insists on the marginality of Butoh. She keeps Butoh’s alternative character and anti-modernity purpose. On the other hand, she expresses femininity instead of feminism in her work. Hata-Kanoko’s art is rooted in her sympathy to human beings.

As Japanese obsessional artist Kudo Tetsumi said, “For me, art is to doubt everything completely, to doubt God, to doubt myself, and to doubt the world. The accumulation of these doubts became my art. To doubt to the extreme……that is my starting point.” Hata-Kanoko also used to tell me, “I dance Butoh to resist the world.” I was deeply touched by this sentence as well as Hata-Kanoko’s works. For me, Hata-Kanoko’s "Beauty of Nature" is a dark aura which reflects historical memory.

Hata-Kanoko laid down the possibility of development of Butoh in Taiwan by means of avant-garde theatre activities collaborated with Taiwanese artists in different fields. I left this topic to explorers in the future.



Acknowledgements:


Many thanks to Hata-Kanoko, friends of Taiwan Haibizi tent theatre, Prof. Sal Murgiyanto, Prof. LIN Ya-tin, Prof. CHEN Ya-ping and my parents.
@2009, Alice Yi-chun CHEN